Gre Psychology Study Guide Pdf Details

The GRE Psychology Test book is an excellent study guide for students taking the GRE psychology test. The book provides in-depth coverage of each topic that will be covered on the exam, as well as practice questions and explanations. It is important to note that the GRE psychology test covers a broad range of topics, so it is important to become familiar with all of them before attempting the exam. The GRE Psychology Test book can help you do just that. The book also includes tips and strategies for taking the exam, which will come in handy on test day. Overall, the GRE Psychology Test book is an excellent resource and should be considered when studying for this challenging exam.

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G R A D U A T E R E C O R D E X A M I N A T I O N S®

Psychology Test

Practice Book

This practice book contains

one actual, full-length GRE® Psychology Test

test-taking strategies

Become familiar with

test structure and content

test instructions and answering procedures

Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who took the test at a GRE administration.

This book is provided FREE with test registration by the GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS Board.

www.ets.org/gre

Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report.

This book contains important information about scoring.

Copyright © 2009 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

ETS, the ETS logos, LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING., GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS,

and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States and other countries.

Table of Contents

 

Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests

3

Development of the Subject Tests

3

Content of the Psychology Test

4

Preparing for a Subject Test

6

Test-Taking Strategies

6

What Your Scores Mean

7

Practice Psychology Test

9

Scoring Your Subject Test

53

Evaluating Your Performance

56

Answer Sheet

57

Purpose of the GRE

Subject Tests

The GRE Subject Tests are designed to help graduate school admission committees and fellowship sponsors assess the qualii cations of applicants in specii c i elds of study. The tests also provide you with an assessment of your own qualii cations.

Scores on the tests are intended to indicate knowledge of the subject matter emphasized in many undergraduate programs as preparation for graduate study. Because past achievement is usually a good indicator of future performance, the scores are helpful in predicting success in graduate study. Because

the tests are standardized, the test scores permit comparison of students from different institutions with different undergraduate programs. For some Subject Tests, subscores are provided in addition to the total score; these subscores indicate the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation, and they may help you plan future studies.

The GRE Board recommends that scores on the Subject Tests be considered in conjunction with other relevant information about applicants. Because numerous factors inl uence success in graduate school, reliance on a single measure to predict success is not advisable. Other indicators of competence typically include undergraduate transcripts showing courses taken and grades earned, letters of recommendation, and GRE General Test scores. For information about the appropriate use of GRE scores, see the GRE Guide to the Use of Scores at www.ets.org/gre/stupubs.

Development of the

Subject Tests

Each new edition of a Subject Test is developed by a committee of examiners composed of professors in the subject who are on undergraduate and graduate faculties in different types of institutions and in different regions of the United States and Canada. In selecting members for each committee, the GRE Program seeks the advice of appropriate professional associations in the subject.

The content and scope of each test are specii ed and reviewed periodically by the committee of examiners. Test questions are written by committee members and by other university faculty members who are subject-matter specialists. All questions proposed for the test are reviewed and revised by the committee and subject-matter specialists at ETS. The tests are assembled in accordance with the content specii cations developed by the committee to ensure adequate coverage of the various aspects of the i eld and, at the same time, to prevent overemphasis on any single topic. The entire test is then reviewed and approved by the committee.

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

3

PRACTICE BOOK

Subject-matter and measurement specialists on the ETS staff assist the committee, providing information and advice about methods of test construction and helping to prepare the questions and assemble the test. In addition, each test question is reviewed to eliminate language, symbols, or content considered potentially offensive, inappropriate for major subgroups of the test-taking population, or likely

to perpetuate any negative attitude that may be conveyed to these subgroups.

Because of the diversity of undergraduate curricula, it is not possible for a single test to cover all the material you may have studied. The examiners, therefore, select questions that test the basic knowledge and skills most important for successful graduate study in the particular i eld. The committee keeps the test up-to-date by regularly developing new editions and revising existing editions. In this way, the test content remains current. In addition, curriculum surveys are conducted periodically to ensure that the content of a test rel ects what is currently being taught in the undergraduate curriculum.

After a new edition of a Subject Test is i rst administered, examinees’ responses to each test question are analyzed in a variety of ways to determine whether each question functioned as expected. These analyses may reveal that a question is ambiguous, requires knowledge beyond the scope of the test, or is inappropriate for the total group or a particular subgroup of examinees taking the test. Such questions are not used in computing scores.

Following this analysis, the new test edition is equated to an existing test edition. In the equating process, statistical methods are used to assess the difi culty of the new test. Then scores are adjusted so that examinees who took a more difi cult edition of the test are not penalized, and examinees who took an easier edition of the test do not have an advantage. Variations in the number of questions in the different editions of the test are also taken into account in this process.

Scores on the Subject Tests are reported as three- digit scaled scores with the third digit always zero. The maximum possible range for all Subject Test total scores is from 200 to 990. The actual range of scores for a particular Subject Test, however, may be smaller. For Subject Tests that report subscores, the maximum possible range is 20 to 99; however, the actual range of subscores for any test or test edition may be smaller. Subject Test score interpretive information is provided in Interpreting Your GRE Scores, which you will receive with your GRE score report. This publication is also available at www.ets.org/gre/stupubs.

Content of the

Psychology Test

Most editions of the test consist of about 205 multiple-choice questions. Each question in the test has i ve options from which the examinee is to select the one option that is the correct or best answer to the question. Some of the stimulus materials, such as a description of an experiment or a graph, may serve as the basis for several questions.

The questions in the Psychology Test are drawn from the core of knowledge most commonly encountered in courses offered at the undergraduate level within the broadly dei ned i eld of psychology. A question may require recalling factual information, analyzing relationships, applying principles, drawing conclusions from data, and/or evaluating a research design.

The Psychology Test yields two subscores in

addition to the total score. Although the test offers only two subscores, there are questions in three major content categories:

I.EXPERIMENTAL SUBSCORE — (40%)

A. Learning (3-5%)

1.Classical Conditioning

2.Instrumental Conditioning

3.Observational Learning, Modeling

4.Theories, Applications and Issues

4

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

 

PRACTICE BOOK

 

 

B.Language (3-4%)

1.Units (phonemes, morphemes, phrases)

2.Syntax

3.Meaning

4.Speech Perception and Processing

5.Reading Processes

6.Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

7.Bilingualism

8.Theories, Applications and Issues

C.Memory (7-9%)

1.Working Memory

2.Long-term Memory

3.Types of Memory

4.Memory Systems and Processes

5.Theories, Applications and Issues

D.Thinking (4-6%)

1.Representation (Categorization, Imagery, Schemas, Scripts)

2.Problem Solving

3.Judgment and Decision-Making Processes

4.Planning, Metacognition

5.Intelligence

6.Theories, Applications and Issues

E.Sensation and Perception (5-7%)

1.Psychophysics, Signal Detection

2.Attention

3.Perceptual Organization

4.Vision

5.Audition

6.Gustation

7.Olfaction

8.Somatosenses

9.Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

10.Theories, Applications and Issues

F.Physiological/Behavioral Neuroscience (12-14%)

1.Neurons

2.Sensory Structures and Processes

3.Motor Structures and Functions

4.Central Structures and Processes

5.Motivation, Arousal, Emotion

6.Cognitive Neuroscience

7.Neuromodulators and Drugs

8.Hormonal Factors

9.Comparative and Ethology

10.States of Consciousness

11.Theories, Applications and Issues

II. SOCIAL SUBSCORE — (43%)

A.Clinical and Abnormal (12-14%)

1.Stress, Conl ict, Coping

2.Diagnostic Systems

3.Assessment

4.Causes and Development of Disorders

5.Neurophysiological Factors

6.Treatment of Disorders

7.Epidemiology

8.Prevention

9.Health Psychology

10.Cultural and Gender Issues

11.Theories, Applications and Issues

B.Lifespan Development (12-14%)

1.Nature-Nurture

2.Physical and Motor

3.Perception and Cognition

4.Language

5.Intelligence

6.Social and Personality

7.Emotion

8.Socialization, Family and Cultural Inl uences

9.Theories, Applications and Issues

C.Personality (3-5%)

1.Theories

2.Structure

3.Assessment

4.Personality and Behavior

5.Applications and Issues

D.Social (12-14%)

1.Social Perception, Cognition, Attribution, Beliefs

2.Attitudes and Behavior

3.Social Comparison, Self

4.Emotion, Affect and Motivation

5.Conformity, Inl uence and Persuasion

6.Interpersonal Attraction and Close Relationships

7.Group and Intergroup Processes

8.Cultural and Gender Inl uences

9.Evolutionary Psychology, Altruism and Aggression

10.Theories, Applications and Issues

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

5

PRACTICE BOOK

III. OTHER AREAS — (17%)

A.General (4-6%)

1.History

2.Industrial-Organizational

3.Educational

B.Measurement and Methodology (11-13%)

1.Psychometrics, Test Construction, Reliability, Validity

2.Research Designs

3.Statistical Procedures

4.Scientii c Method and the Evaluation of Evidence

5.Ethics and Legal Issues

6.Analysis and Interpretation of Findings

The questions on which subscores are based are distributed throughout the test; they are not set aside and labeled separately, although several questions from a single content area may appear consecutively.

Preparing for a Subject Test

GRE Subject Test questions are designed to measure skills and knowledge gained over a long period

of time. Although you might increase your scores to some extent through preparation a few weeks or months before you take the test, last minute cramming is unlikely to be of further help. The following information may be helpful.

A general review of your college courses is probably the best preparation for the test. However, the test covers a broad range of subject matter, and no one is expected to be familiar with the content of every question.

Use this practice book to become familiar with the types of questions in the GRE Psychology Test, paying special attention to the directions. If you thoroughly understand the directions before you take the test, you will have more time during the test to focus on the questions themselves.

Test-Taking Strategies

The questions in the practice test in this book illustrate the types of multiple-choice questions in the test. When you take the actual test, you will mark your answers on a separate machine-scorable answer sheet. Total testing time is two hours and

i fty minutes; there are no separately timed sections. Following are some general test-taking strategies you may want to consider.

Read the test directions carefully, and work as rapidly as you can without being careless. For each question, choose the best answer from the available options.

All questions are of equal value; do not waste time pondering individual questions you i nd extremely difi cult or unfamiliar.

You may want to work through the test quite rapidly, i rst answering only the questions about which you feel coni dent, then going back and answering questions that require more thought, and concluding with the most difi cult questions if there is time.

If you decide to change an answer, make sure you completely erase it and i ll in the oval corresponding to your desired answer.

Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring.

Your score will be determined by subtracting one-fourth the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers. If you have some knowledge of a question and are able to rule out one or more of the answer choices as incorrect, your chances of selecting the correct answer are improved, and answering such questions will likely improve your score. It is unlikely that pure guessing will raise your score; it may lower your score.

Record all answers on your answer sheet. Answers recorded in your test book will not be counted.

Do not wait until the last i ve minutes of a testing session to record answers on your answer sheet.

6

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

 

PRACTICE BOOK

 

 

What Your Scores Mean

Your raw score — that is, the number of questions you answered correctly minus one-fourth of the number you answered incorrectly — is converted to the scaled score that is reported. This conversion ensures that

a scaled score reported for any edition of a Subject Test is comparable to the same scaled score earned on any other edition of the same test. Thus, equal scaled scores on a particular Subject Test indicate essentially equal levels of performance regardless of the test edition taken. Test scores should be compared only with other scores on the same Subject Test. (For example, a 680 on the Computer Science Test is not equivalent to a 680 on the Mathematics Test.)

Before taking the test, you may i nd it useful to know approximately what raw scores would be required to obtain a certain scaled score. Several factors inl uence the conversion of your raw score to your scaled score, such as the difi culty of the test edition and the number of test questions included in the computation of your raw score. Based on recent editions of the Psychology Test, the following table gives the range of raw scores associated with selected scaled scores for three different test editions. (Note that when the number of scored questions for a given test is greater than the range of possible scaled scores, it is likely that two or more raw scores will convert to the same scaled score.) The three test editions in the table that follows were selected to rel ect varying degrees of difi culty. Examinees should note that future test editions may be somewhat more or less difi cult than the test editions illustrated in the table.

Range of Raw Scores* Needed to Earn

Selected Scaled Score on Three Psychology Test Editions That Differ in Difficulty

Scaled Score

 

Raw Scores

 

 

 

 

Form A

Form B

Form C

 

 

 

 

 

700

146-148

144-146

137-139

 

 

 

 

600

116-118

111-113

107-109

 

 

 

 

500

86-88

77-80

77-79

 

 

 

 

400

56-58

44-46

46-48

 

 

 

 

Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score

 

 

 

 

 

204

203

197

 

 

 

 

*Raw Score = Number of correct answers minus one-fourth the number of incorrect answers, rounded to the nearest integer.

For a particular test edition, there are many ways to earn the same raw score. For example, on the edition listed above as “Form A,” a raw score of 116 through 118 would earn a scaled score of 600. Below are a few of the possible ways in which a scaled score of 600 could be earned on the edition:

Examples of Ways to Earn a Scaled Score of 600 on the Edition Labeled as “Form A”

 

 

 

 

Number of

 

 

 

 

Questions

 

Questions

Questions

Questions

Used to

Raw

Answered

Answered

Not

Compute

Score

Correctly

Incorrectly

Answered

Raw Score

 

 

 

 

 

116

116

0

88

204

 

 

 

 

 

116

125

35

44

204

 

 

 

 

 

116

134

70

0

204

 

 

 

 

 

118

118

0

86

204

 

 

 

 

 

118

126

34

44

204

 

 

 

 

 

118

135

67

2

204

 

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

7

PRACTICE BOOK

Practice Test

To become familiar with how the administration will be conducted at the test center, irst remove the answer sheet (pages 57 and 58). Then go to the back cover of the test book (page 52) and follow the instructions for completing the identiication areas of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin the test, note the time and begin marking your answers on the answer sheet.

8

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

 

PRACTICE BOOK

 

 

FORM GR0781

81

GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS®

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

Do not break the seal

until you are told to do so.

The contents of this test are confidential. Disclosure or reproduction of any portion of it is prohibited.

THIS TEST BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN FROM THE ROOM.

Copyright © 2007, 2003 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

GRE, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, ETS, EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE and the ETS logos are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.

9

NO TEST MATERIAL ON THIS PAGE

10

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

TIME 170 MINUTES

205 QUESTIONS

DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then mark the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

1.Which of the following is a defining difference between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder?

(A)Major depressive disorder involves only depressive symptoms, but bipolar disorder involves both manic and depressive symptoms.

(B)People with major depressive disorder suffer from intense anxiety, but those with bipolar disorder do not.

(C)Bipolar disorder can be treated with medications, but major depressive disorder cannot.

(D)Psychotic features can occur in bipolar disorder but not in major depressive disorder.

(E)Genetic causes have been established for bipolar disorder but not for major depressive disorder.

2.Which of the following is an example of recogni- tion testing?

(A)“Is this word one of the words I showed you earlier?”

(B)“What did you have for breakfast yesterday?”

(C)“What is the state capital of Massachusetts?”

(D)“Can you list all of the bones in the human body, in any order you choose?”

(E)“On the list I showed you earlier, which words began with the letter ‘m’ ?”

3.In a memory experiment, participants study two lists of 15 unrelated words. Participants in the experimental group study list 1 and then study list 2, each for 3 minutes. Participants in the control group first look at a set of irrelevant pictures for three minutes and then study list 2 for three minutes. Which of the following results would be expected?

(A)The control group will recall all of the items in list 2.

(B)The control group will recall more items from list 2 than will the experimental group.

(C)The experimental group will recall more items from list 2 than will the control group.

(D)The experimental group will recall approx- imately equal numbers of items from both list 1 and list 2.

(E)The experimental group will recall more items from list 1 than from list 2.

4.Which of the following is characterized by a long history of dramatic complaints about faked medical conditions?

(A)Factitious disorder

(B)Somatoform disorder

(C)Anxiety disorder

(D)Mood disorder

(E)Adjustment disorder

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11

5.Which of the following disorders is INCORRECTLY paired with an empirically supported intervention for treating it?

(A)Obsessive-compulsive disorder..exposure and response prevention

(B)Social anxiety..systematic desensitization

(C)Depression..cognitive therapy

(D)Encopresis..rational-emotive behavior therapy

(E)Borderline personality disorder..dialectical behavior therapy

6.Object relations therapy is most closely related to

(A)cognitive-behavioral techniques

(B)psychoanalysis

(C)client-centered therapy

(D)modeling

(E)Gestalt therapy

7.Prosopagnosia results in an inability to

(A)identify colors

(B)distinguish tastes

(C)detect movement

(D)detect individual differences among faces

(E)express feelings through facial movements

8.Which of the following is most likely to occur quickly when cocaine blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine?

(A)Increased production of norepinephrine

and decreased production of dopamine throughout the body

(B)Increased production of norepinephrine and dopamine throughout the body

(C)Increased production of dopamine but decreased production of norepinephrine

(D)Diminished effects of norepinephrine and dopamine at the synapse

(E)Prolongation of the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine at the synapse

9.In an experiment, a pigeon was rewarded every twenty seconds regardless of the pigeon’s behavior. By the end of the experiment, the frequency of the pigeon’s grooming responses had significantly increased. Which of the following phenomena describes this result?

(A)Generalization

(B)Superstitious behavior

(C)Discrimination

(D)Classical conditioning

(E)Modeling

10.Two groups of rats are exposed to a shock (unconditioned stimulus) that occurs immediately after a flashing blue light (conditioned stimulus) is presented. The first group had prior exposure to the shock and the light, but during the prior exposure the shock and the light occurred at random and unrelated times. The second group had no prior exposure to the shock or the light. Freezing in the presence of the light is the conditioned response. Which of the following is true when the rats are shown the flashing blue light without the shock?

(A)The rats in the first group will freeze because they can habituate to the shock.

(B)The rats in the first group will freeze, because they already have the shock stored in memory and are able to make better associations to it.

(C)The second group will freeze, because the temporal contiguity between the shock and the flashing blue light is less for that group.

(D)The second group will freeze, because the flashing light is a more valid predictor of shock for that group.

(E)Neither group will freeze, because the temporal contiguity between the light and the shock is the same for both.

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11.Longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs can be used to study how behavior changes as a function of age. A disadvantage of cross-sectional studies is that the results can be influenced by

(A)random assignment

(B)participant attrition

(C)socioeconomic status

(D)cohort differences

(E)small sample sizes

12.A cognitive theory of gender-role development would most likely state which of the following?

(A)Children learn to act in gender-consistent ways through the process of identification.

(B)Children learn their gender roles through reinforcement for gender-consistent behavior.

(C)Children learn their gender roles through observing the behavior of others.

(D)Children are motivated to act in gender- consistent ways because they try to conform to their own gender schemas.

(E)Children learn to act in gender-consistent ways because of their gender-biased chromosomes.

13.Research indicates that the words in the young language learner’s lexicon are most likely to be

(A)randomly distributed among various syntactic classes

(B)directly predictable from frequency of use by parents

(C)verb phrases referencing mental states, such as “I feel” and “I think”

(D)nouns referencing familiar objects in the environment

(E)connectives (e.g., “and,” “but”)

14.Autistic disorder is a developmental condition characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

(A)intolerance of change

(B)communication problems

(C)ritualistic repetitive behavior

(D)weak attachment to others

(E)hyperactivity

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15.In the studies by Stanley Milgram and his colleagues, which of the following factors tended to elicit a relatively low level of obedience?

(A)The study used randomly selected participants.

(B)The study was conducted in a university laboratory.

(C)The “learner” (victim) presumably received a slight shock.

(D)An authority figure (experimenter)

in another room gave instructions to the “teacher” (participant).

(E)The “teacher” (participant) could neither see nor hear the “learner” (victim).

16.One could use the empathy-altruism hypothesis to explain which of the following?

(A)The motivation underlying prosocial behavior

(B)The basis of interpersonal attraction

(C)The foundation of reducing prejudice

(D)The reason for joining groups

(E)The process for increasing social diversity

17.In a job interview, Kathy tells her prospective employer that she once found a bag of money and returned it even though she desperately needed the money to pay her rent. Kathy’s behavior during the interview illustrates

(A)modesty

(B)supplication

(C)exemplification

(D)intimidation

(E)introspection

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18.Sandra participated in a signal detection study assessing vision. The graph above illustrates her responses on the signal + noise trials. She said “No, I didn’t see it” to all stimuli in the unshaded area to the left of the criterion line. She said, “Yes, I saw it” to all stimuli in the shaded area to the right of the criterion line. Based on this information, a correct conclusion is that

(A)Sandra had more false alarms than correct rejections

(B)Sandra had more misses than hits

(C)Sandra would have had more hits if her criterion had been moved to the left

(D)compared to the general population, Sandra’s absolute threshold is lower than average

(E)compared to the general population, Sandra’s vision is more accurate than average

19.The auditory and vestibular systems are alike in that both

(A)are vital to the sense of hearing

(B)respond slowly to the proximal stimulus

(C)provide us with information about the same aspects of the environment

(D)have evolved from the rods and cones that transduce light into neural activity

(E)depend on hair cells to transduce the proximal stimulus into neural activity

20.On a very dark night, you spot a faint light, just to the right of your focal point. When you look directly at the light, it suddenly disappears. Which of the following is the best explanation for this phenomenon?

(A)You suddenly switched your criterion for reporting a signal, so that misses are more likely than hits.

(B)Rods allow you to see in poorly lit environ- ments, and rods are not present in the fovea.

(C)The light-sensitive material in the retina tends to be used up within about one minute of exposure to light.

(D)Retinal stimulation is less likely to travel to the visual cortex at nighttime than during the day.

(E)You had developed a mental set for reporting the presence of a visual stimulus.

21.NOT SCORED

22.An experimenter who incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis commits which of the following kinds of error?

(A)A systematic error

(B)A random error

(C)A Type I error

(D)A false alarm

(E)The fundamental attribution error

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23.The terms “purposive behaviorism” and “sign- gestalt learning” are used to describe the learning theory developed by which of the following psychologists?

(A)John B. Watson

(B)Clark Hull

(C)Edward C. Tolman

(D)Wolfgang Köhler

(E)B.F. Skinner

24.Which of the following individuals is at the highest risk of developing schizophrenia?

(A)Mary, whose identical twin sister has schizophrenia

(B)Edward, whose fraternal twin sister has schizophrenia

(C)Jamal, whose mother has schizophrenia

(D)Peter, whose father has schizophrenia

(E)Saul, whose maternal grandmother and maternal grandfather have schizophrenia

25.A professor is developing a theory of personality based on B.F. Skinner’s principles. The concept that will be central to this theory is

(A)insight

(B)modeling

(C)construct formation

(D)reinforcement contingencies

(E)unconditional positive regard

26.Which of the following theorists proposes confrontation, avoidance, and seeking social support as the ways people cope with anxiety?

(A)Sigmund Freud

(B)Carl Jung

(C)Erich Fromm

(D)Karen Horney

(E)Erik Erikson

27.One of the most common tactics in personality research is to assess traits. The most fundamental characteristic of traits is that they are

(A)formed through observation of others

(B)acquired through classical conditioning

(C)largely determined by birth order

(D)inferences based on behavior

(E)the modern equivalent of cognitive maps

28.Attempting to describe or understand conscious experience was of LEAST interest to

(A)the structuralists, such as Edward Titchener

(B)the early behaviorists, such as John B. Watson

(C)humanistic psychologists, such as

Abraham Maslow

(D)Gestalt psychologists, such as Max Wertheimer

(E)cognitive psychologists, such as Roger Shepard

29.According to educational psychologists, cooperative learning involves

(A)competition and individual achievement

(B)joint effort among students

(C)teacher-inspired learning

(D)working in the community

(E)peer mediation

30.One of the fundamental assumptions of the behaviorist approach is that

(A)the probability of a behavior depends on

past consequences of that behavior

(B)the probability of a behavior depends on people’s beliefs and expectations

(C)unconscious thoughts influence one type of behavior and conscious thoughts influence another

(D)people have a free will that differentiates their behavior from that of other species

(E)the best way to uncover the reasons behind people’s behavior is simply to ask them for self-reports

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31.A 40-item vocabulary test was administered to a group of students. A second, similar test of vocabulary terms was administered to this same group of students approximately one week later. The researcher reported that the correlation between these two tests was r = .90. Which of the following can be stated regarding the two tests?

(A)They have strong reliability.

(B)They have weak reliability.

(C)They have strong divergent validity.

(D)They have weak content validity.

(E)They have strong face validity.

32.On an attitude scale, the consecutively ordered scale points 1 through 7 represent different degrees of attitude strength, but the distance between any two adjacent scale points remains undetermined. Given what is known, this scale can be said to have the properties of

(A)a ratio scale

(B)a nominal scale

(C)a multidimensional scale

(D)an ordinal scale

(E)an interval scale

33.A correlation of .20 is found between education and income in a representative sample of residents in city X. However, the correlation is not statistically significant. On the basis of this outcome alone, which of the following conclusions is most warranted?

(A)Increased education generally results in no increase in income in most cities.

(B)People with more education generally tend

to earn more income in city X, but we do not know which is the cause and which is the effect.

(C)In city X, most of the people with advanced degrees are wealthy.

(D)In city X, the relationship between education and income is probably curvilinear.

(E)No significant relation between education and income was established.

34.We generally find it harder to parse a sentence in the passive voice, such as “The cat was chased by the dog,” than a corresponding one in the active voice, such as “The dog chased the cat.” However, the sentence “The elephant squashed the peanut” is no harder to process than “The peanut was squashed by the elephant.” Presum- ably this is because we know that elephants, not peanuts, can squash other things. These examples provide support for the view that we

(A)use semantics as a guide to parsing

(B)use phonemic restoration during sentence processing

(C)use the syntactic structure of a sentence to guide our parsing

(D)momentarily entertain multiple meanings of ambiguous words

(E)learn how to process language at an early age

35.Pat and Chris are eating dinner at Chris’s house. Pat asks, “Do you have any salt?’ Chris replies “Yes” and continues to eat. Psychologists who study language would say that Chris has committed which type of error?

(A)Phonetic

(B)Pragmatic

(C)Syntactic

(D)Semantic

(E)Morphemic

36.How many morphemes are there in the word “dreamers”?

(A)None

(B)Two

(C)Three

(D)Five

(E)Seven

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37.Kevin is 12 months old and has never seen a cat. When he first sees a cat, Kevin seems startled, but then he looks at his mother to see how she is responding. This is an example of which of the following?

(A)Accommodation

(B)Assimilation

(C)Prosocial behavior

(D)Self-efficacy

(E)Social referencing

38.Lawrence Kohlberg’s and Carol Gilligan’s theories of moral development are driven by different values. Which of the following best represents the values of each theory?

Kohlberg

Gilligan

(A) Motivation

Rationality

(B) Justice

Care

(C) Care

Justice

(D) Rationality

Motivation

(E) Justice

Rationality

39.A preschool child says, “The sun is sad today.” The child is demonstrating which of the following concepts?

(A)Animism

(B)Centrism

(C)Conservation

(D)Irreversibility

(E)Object constancy

40.A woman helps her daughter tie her shoes by providing a good deal of help at first and then providing less and less help until the child is able to do it by herself. This is an example of

(A)modeling

(B)a script

(C)child support

(D)scaffolding

(E)a retrieval cue

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41.Failure of dopamine produced in the substantia nigra to reach the basal ganglia of the cerebral hemispheres results in symptoms of tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and disturbances of posture. This syndrome is called

(A)Parkinson’s disease

(B)Tourette’s syndrome

(C)athetosis

(D)Huntington’s chorea

(E)myoclonus

42.Jack has an irresistible urge to check his door lock exactly five times before he goes to bed. Although he realizes that his behavior is exces- sive and irrational, he feels quite anxious unless he performs this task in exactly the same manner each night. Jack’s behavior is an example of

(A)an obsession

(B)a compulsion

(C)a delusion

(D)an overvalued idea

(E)magical thinking

43.Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from taking a medication that is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) ?

(A)Jack, who has lost his sense of identity

and has wandered from his home to a distant city

(B)Tyler, who believes that he has several distinct personalities

(C)Andrea, who hears imaginary voices telling her that she will suffer a fatal accident

(D)Shannon, who feels helpless, worthless, and apathetic and who thinks that her life is without meaning

(E)David, who falsely believes that other people are trying to kill him

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44.According to ethologists, fixed patterns of responses to particular classes of stimuli usually occur as a result of

(A)stimulation of prostaglandins

(B)innate releasing mechanisms

(C)foraging adaptations

(D)respondent learning

(E)operant learning

45.Which of the following is a part of the nervous system that primarily deals with visceral muscles and glands?

(A)Limbic system

(B)Somatic system

(C)Autonomic system

(D)Central system

(E)Sensory system

46.Saltatory conduction in a neuron is a process whereby

(A)a neuron may electrically transmit infor- mation to a neighboring neuron via gap junctions

(B)a passive current travels the length of an unmyelinated axon

(C)an action potential jumps from node to node in a myelinated axon

(D)graded potentials in dendrites converge at the axon hillock

(E)an inhibitory postsynaptic potential reduces the size of the graded potential in a dendrite

47.Which of the following is a brain structure that plays a crucial role in regulating and moderating an organism’s emotional responses and learning about emotional events?

(A)Amygdala

(B)Hippocampus

(C)Corpus callosum

(D)Occipital cortex

(E)Sylvian fissure

48.Two strangers, Lisa and Henry, were both watching a large building being imploded. At the implosion they became attracted to each other and began dating. Lisa and Henry’s attraction is best explained by which of the following effects?

(A)Mere-exposure

(B)Excitation-transfer

(C)False consensus

(D)Sleeper

(E)Overjustification

49.People from collectivist cultures are more likely than people from individualistic cultures to engage in which of the following behaviors?

(A)Focusing on internal self-attributes

(B)Developing a large circle of friends

(C)Defining the self in relation to others

(D)Being clear and direct in self-expression

(E)Showing a self-enhancing bias

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50.Research on social cognition best supports which of the following conclusions?

(A)Computer simulations of person perception have been much more successful than computer simulations of problem-solving.

(B)Cognitive heuristics can enhance the sound- ness of social judgments, but they require much more effort than do other modes of social information processing.

(C)Social concepts used frequently by an indi- vidual in the past are likely to influence the individual’s future social cognitions.

(D)Social cognition is unlike other cognitive processes in that it does not change appre- ciably after a child enters elementary school.

(E)Social information is almost always encoded objectively and comprehensively.

51.Which of the following statements describes one of the sources of information that helps us locate the direction from which a sound is coming?

(A)Information about sound localization is registered directly on the basilar membrane of the ear.

(B)Information from each separate cone of confusion is registered directly in the appropriate portion of the auditory cortex.

(C)The sound forms a “figure,” which can be heard against the “ground” of the back- ground noises.

(D)The sound typically reaches the two ears

at different times.

(E)The sounds are analyzed by the hair cells of the utricle.

52.We often perceive what we expect to perceive. Shown the ambiguous figure above, which can be seen either as two profiles or as a vase, we are more likely to see the figure as a vase if we have just been shown a series of vases. The influence of expectation on perception is an example of which of the following?

(A)Top-down processing

(B)Weber’s law

(C)Linear perspective

(D)Interposition

(E)Simultaneous contrast

53.Psychologists studying sensation and perception are interested in research on phantom limb pain because such research

(A)shows that the gate-control theory of pain perception cannot be correct

(B)offers direct support for opponent-process theory

(C)demonstrates that pain signals must travel through the superior colliculus

(D)points out that pain can be perceived even when pain receptors are not being stimulated

(E)illustrates that thresholds are typically higher for passive touch than for active touch

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54.Use of “private speech” by preschool children best supports which of the following conclusions?

(A)It can enhance children’s understanding of their immediate situations and help them make decisions as they talk to themselves.

(B)It serves only as a facilitator for the develop- ment of a second language.

(C)It is a form of catharsis that reduces frustra- tion and anger in most children.

(D)It uses more complex grammatical structures than the same children use in their public speech.

(E)It indicates a vulnerability to a dissociative psychological disorder that becomes mani- fest in adolescence or early adulthood.

55.According to research regarding the significance of birth order during adolescence, which of the following comments was most likely made by a father concerning his eldest child?

(A)“She’s not as interested in school as our middle child.”

(B)“I don’t know where she finds the time for her homework and all of her extracurricular activities.”

(C)“Sometimes I wonder why she behaves in such a mean-spirited way towards her younger brother.”

(D)“She will grow up to be an ambassador; she frequently helps settle conflicts between kids in our neighborhood.”

(E)“She’s not a self-starter!”

56.The symbolic play of children is considered very important in their development, primarily because it reflects

(A)willingness to cooperate with other children

(B)proficiency in the use of metacognitive skills

(C)a shift from an external to an internal locus of control

(D)an understanding of what it means to be a member of a group

(E)the ability to have one object or concept stand for another

57.On a test with a positively skewed distribution, one student received the mean score, one student received the median score, and one student received the mode score. Which of these scores has the greatest percentile ranking?

(A)The mean

(B)The median

(C)The mode

(D)All three scores are equal.

(E)It cannot be determined from the data given.

58.A marketing company rewards associates with a bonus for every 15 surveys they complete. Which of the following schedules of reinforcement best describes this pay arrangement?

(A)Fixed interval

(B)Fixed ratio

(C)Variable interval

(D)Variable ratio

(E)Continuous

59.A father has been trying to get his son to clean up his room each week. The child was told he would have to wash the dishes on Saturday if he did not clean his room by the end of the week. The father is using which of the following?

(A)Positive reinforcement

(B)Avoidance learning

(C)Shaping

(D)The stimulus generalization gradient

(E)Classical conditioning

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60.White-coat hypertension refers to elevated blood pressure in doctors’ offices. Blood pressure may be as much as 30 points higher when measured in a doctor’s office than when measured at home. Assuming that the doctor’s office is frequently associated with pain and bad news, how can classical conditioning explain this phenomenon?

(A)The doctor’s office serves as a conditioned response for increased blood pressure.

(B)The doctor’s office serves as a conditioned stimulus for increased blood pressure.

(C)Pain elicited during a medical procedure is the conditioned stimulus for high blood pressure.

(D)Increased blood pressure during a routine office visit is an unconditioned stimulus.

(E)Increased blood pressure during a visit in which a serious illness is diagnosed is an unconditioned stimulus.

61.A researcher needs an equal number of participants from each of several age-groups to test for developmental differences. Which of the following sampling procedures would be

best to use if results are to be generalizable?

(A)Simple random sampling

(B)Stratified random sampling

(C)Nonrandom sampling

(D)Simple convenience sampling

(E)Convenience sampling with quotas

62.Bill obtained a raw score of 30 on the midterm examination. If the mean was 25 and the standard deviation was 5, Bill’s T score would be

(A)25

(B)30

(C)50

(D)60

(E)65

63.Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages of test development?

(A)Test conceptualization, test construction, test tryout, item analysis, revision

(B)Test conceptualization, test construction, test tryout, revision, item analysis

(C)Test conceptualization, test tryout, construction, revision, item analysis

(D)Test construction, test conceptualization, test tryout, item analysis, revision

(E)Test tryout, test conceptualization, item analysis, construction, revision

64.According to Harold Kelley’s notion of consensus, a person who tripped and almost fell on the sidewalk would most likely think?

(A)“I was in such a hurry.”

(B)“I am such a clumsy person.”

(C)“I hope no one saw me do that.”

(D)“Lots of people trip in that particular place.”

(E)“They need to fix all the sidewalks on this street.”

65.Which of the following is NOT an important component of Martin Fishbein and Icek Aizen’s theory of reasoned action/planned behavior?

(A)Perceived behavioral control

(B)Attitude toward behavior

(C)Behavioral intentions

(D)Subjective social norms

(E)Peripheral persuasion cues

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66.According to a social-learning explanation for gender differences in nonverbal communication, which of the following is true?

(A)Women generally have less social power than men do, and people who are low in social power are especially attuned to the emotions of others.

(B)Social sensitivity is likely to be a classically conditioned response in females and is extinguished in many males during early childhood.

(C)Children are reinforced for gender-consistent nonverbal behavior and observe and imitate the nonverbal behavior of same-gender adults.

(D)Gender differences can be traced to spreading activation, so that the activation is more likely to spread to gender-consistent nodes than to gender-inconsistent nodes.

(E)As a result of genetic predispositions, women are more likely to learn about social sensi- tivity, whereas men are more likely to learn about social influence.

67.Contemporary theories of work motivation, such as equity theory and expectancy theory, assume that which of the following elements is central to motivated behavior?

(A)Good pay

(B)A good benefits package

(C)Strong leadership

(D)Operant conditioning

(E)Cognitive factors

68.NOT SCORED

69.Neurotransmitters are released from what neuronal structure?

(A)Dendrite

(B)Myelin sheath

(C)Mitochondrion

(D)Soma

(E)Axon terminal

70.Which of the following neurotransmitters is released at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle axons to excite the muscle to contract?

(A)Acetylcholine

(B)Dopamine

(C)Glutamate

(D)Epinephrine

(E)Norepinephrine

71.Which of the following is a noninvasive technique that allows cognitive neuroscientists to study processing by the intact human brain?

(A)Direct stimulation of the brain

(B)Immunohistochemistry

(C)Microdialysis

(D)Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

(E)The Wada test

72.According to ethologists and evolutionary psychogists, the evolution of altruistic behavior is best explained by which of the following?

(A)Engaging in altruistic behavior changes one’s genes so that such behavior becomes more likely in the next generation.

(B)Altruistic behavior is likely to spread within a population because others imitate the behavior of an altruistic individual.

(C)Altruistic behavior becomes incorporated into the collective unconscious of the species.

(D)Gradual increases in intelligence from one generation to the next make altruistic behavior progressively more likely.

(E)Individuals showing altruistic behavior promote the survival of relatives, who are likely to have similar genes.

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73.When early researchers developed a measure of the need for achievement, they emphasized the importance of

(A)gender and age

(B)role models and personal motives

(C)self-esteem and educational opportunity

(D)motivation to succeed and fear of failure

(E)family social status and reputation with peers

74.A theorist who concludes that predictions about behavior depend on information about the situation and the traits that characterize a person assumes which of the following approaches?

(A)Factor analytic

(B)Idiographic

(C)Interactionist

(D)Nativist

(E)Nomothetic

75.Encoding of new memories is most likely to be disrupted by damage to the

(A)left frontal lobe

(B)hippocampus

(C)hypothalamus

(D)corpus callosum

(E)parietal cortex

76.How might the response tendency referred to as “social desirability” relate to an individual’s performance on a personality inventory?

(A)An individual may be more likely to respond randomly.

(B)An individual’s score will be high because of a high level of interest and involvement.

(C)An individual’s score will be adversely influenced by the individual’s interaction with the person administering the inventory.

(D)An individual may try to answer the questions in a way that places the individual in a more favorable light.

(E)An individual may provide incorrect answers or misleading information that places the individual in a less favorable light.

77.Which of the following shows the application of social comparison theory?

(A)Janet feels poorly about herself because her teammate always beats her at tennis.

(B)Bill likes Angela because she has the same hobbies that he has.

(C)Mark likes Freda because she is attractive.

(D)May reminds Frank of his old friend Marla.

(E)Howard pays extra attention to Charlene to get her to like him.

78.Which of the following is the best example of social exchange?

(A)“If you help me study for this exam, I will help you fix your car.”

(B)“If I am in a good mood, you probably will be too.”

(C)“If I need to make a decision, I will ask you to do some research on the topic.”

(D)A person who lives in a small town is more likely to help others than a person who lives in a large city.

(E)A jury member shares her opinions with the other jury members.

79.The behavioral technique of flooding is most likely to be used in the treatment of people with

(A)anorexia nervosa

(B)a specific phobia

(C)schizophrenia

(D)major depressive disorder

(E)conduct disorder

80.A limitation of existential therapy is that it

(A)is overly directive

(B)lacks well-defined therapeutic techniques

(C)ignores emotional experiences such as anxiety and guilt

(D)ignores the client’s individuality

(E)is too brief to make a real difference

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81.In developmental psychology the phrase “out of sight, out of mind” best describes which of the following?

(A)Tertiary circular reactions

(B)The “A not B” error

(C)Poor visual recognition memory

(D)Lack of object permanence

(E)Primary circular reactions

82.Two children are playing in a sandbox. One is talking about sand castles, while the other is talking about going out to lunch. They are taking turns talking, but neither is really listening to the other. The two children are engaged in which of the following types of play?

(A)Solitary

(B)Pretend

(C)Associative

(D)Parallel

(E)Cooperative

83.A newborn who turns her head toward something that touches her cheek is most likely exhibiting which of the following?

(A)The rooting reflex

(B)The Babinski reflex

(C)The Moro reflex

(D)Random search behavior

(E)Habituation

84.Implementation of a double-blind procedure would be most difficult in studying the behavioral effects of which of the following?

(A)A new antidepressant medication

(B)Subliminal perception audiotapes

(C)Transient magnetic fields

(D)Vitamin supplements

(E)Psychotherapy

85.Recent findings indicate that new neurons form in which area of the adult mammalian brain?

(A)Amygdala

(B)Caudate nucleus

(C)Hippocampus

(D)Hypothalamus

(E)Thalamus

86.Research suggests that young girls who frequently watch television are more likely than other young girls to be highly gender stereotyped. We cannot conclude that television viewing leads to increased gender stereotyping in girls because

(A)the study is an example of an illusory correlation

(B)the study did not include adult women as well as young girls

(C)the study was probably based on a random sample of girls

(D)cause-and-effect conclusions cannot be drawn from these data

(E)experimenter bias explains the relationship

87.The argument that psychology should be an objective study of behavior wherein mind and consciousness serve no useful purpose was made most vigorously by

(A)Carl G. Jung

(B)John B. Watson

(C)Jean Piaget

(D)Kurt Lewin

(E)Harvey Carr

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88.The most appropriate way for researchers to assess participants’ implicit memory of a short essay would be to ask them to

(A)answer a series of multiple-choice questions about the essay

(B)remember as many specific sentences as possible from the essay

(C)summarize the gist of the essay, being as accurate as possible

(D)read the essay again, and see whether the participants read it faster than a comparable, but unfamiliar, essay

(E)read the essay again, using a deeper level of processing; then measure the increase in recall with deeper processing

89.On Tuesday, Sam had fish for dinner. On Wednesday, he did not think about Tuesday’s dinner at all. On Thursday, he thought about how good the fish had tasted on Tuesday. On Wednesday, therefore, Sam’s memory of Tuesday’s dinner was represented in

(A)short-term memory

(B)episodic memory

(C)procedural memory

(D)sensory memory

(E)semantic memory

90.Which of the following is an essential feature of a “distributed system,” such as parallel distributed processing (PDP) ?

(A)Every major concept is stored in the brain in its own specific location.

(B)New concepts are learned via connection weights that cause a pattern of activation.

(C)Activation spreads from main concepts to associated concepts in concentric rings.

(D)New learning occurs best when the stimuli that are available at recall closely match the stimuli that were available at acquisition.

(E)The intention to learn increases activation and causes a stronger memory trace that facilitates recall.

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QUESTIONS 91-96 REFER TO THE INFORMATION BELOW.

A researcher developed a medication that she hypothesizes will stop the progression of symptoms in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She places ads in the newspaper asking for patients with early Alzheimer’s disease to volunteer for her study. Seventeen people call her, and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After six months, the patients come back. Only fifteen return; she cannot locate the other two. She finds fifteen other Alzheimer’s patients through physician referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive any medication. The researcher tests both groups of patients on a variety of cognitive tasks. She finds that the Alzheimer’s patients who took the medication perform better than the control patients on all cognitive tasks except the working memory task. The researcher concludes that the medication is effective in stopping the progression of Alzheimer’s symptoms.

91.Which of the following would NOT be a way to improve this study?

(A)Randomly assign participants to the medication and control groups

(B)Use participants with later stages of Alzheimer’s disease rather than early Alzheimer’s

(C)Give both groups a pretest so that the researcher could assess change in cognitive function

(D)Ensure that the participants actually take the medication daily

(E)Monitor the participants more closely to avoid unexplained loss of participants

92.What valid criticism could be made about the demand characteristics of the study?

(A)Participants knew the medication was supposed to help them, so they might have tried harder on the tests.

(B)Participants in the medication and the control groups may not have had the same level of cognitive deficits in the beginning.

(C)The experimenter may have been biased in scoring the cognitive tests.

(D)The absence of an effect on the working- memory task shows that demand characteristics could explain the results.

(E)The regimen of taking the medication daily was too difficult for the Alzheimer’s patients.

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93.If the researcher had included a pretest in her study, which of the following outcomes would support the hypothesis that the medication stopped the progression of Alzheimer’s symptoms?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

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94.If the researcher conducted the experiment using a double-blind procedure, what would she do?

(A)Avoid telling the participants that the medi- cation is supposed to stop the progression of cognitive deficits.

(B)Add a group of control patients who do not have Alzheimer’s disease and ensure that those administering the cognitive testing do not know who is in the medication group and who is in the control group.

(C)Add a placebo group and ensure that neither the participants nor those administering the cognitive testing know who is in the medication group and who is in the placebo group.

(D)Add a group of control patients who do not have Alzheimer’s disease, tell all partici- pants that taking the pill daily for 6 months will halt cognitive deterioration, and test both groups before they begin taking the pill and after taking it for 6 months.

(E)Use the same design, but tell the patients that the medication is supposed to help a symptom other than cognitive functioning, such as mood.

95.Which of the following would be necessary to turn this study into a true experiment?

(A)Recruit a group of 17 control participants with impaired cognitive functioning due to head trauma, and compare the therapeutic efficacy of the medication in both groups of patients.

(B)Randomly assign Alzheimer’s patients to the medication and control groups.

(C)Measure cognitive functioning several times during the 6-month period, including a measure before the medication is taken.

(D)Perform a t-test on the results and show that the medication group performed better than the control group.

(E)Use participants who have different degrees of Alzheimer’s disease so that the researcher could show that the medication helps those who have less serious symptoms but not those who have more serious symptoms.

96.The researcher decides to conduct a second study using a better design. Based on physician referrals, she recruits a group of 34 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The physicians have prescribed the experimental medications for

17 of these patients but not for the remaining

17 patients. She gives all the patients a pretest on several measures of cognitive skills. After the medication group has taken the medication for 6 months, she gives everyone another set of cognitive tests. She finds that the cognitive skills of those in the medication group have not deter- iorated, whereas the cognitive skills of those in the control group have deteriorated. This type of design is called

(A)a within-subjects design

(B)an ex post facto study

(C)a multivariate design

(D)a quasi-experimental design

(E)a random groups design

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97.A researcher decided to examine the development of memory using shallow-processing and deep- processing tasks. She tested nine year olds and sixteen year olds from the local schools. Half

of the students in each age-group were in the shallow-processing condition; the other half were in the deep-processing condition. The following table shows the percentage of items correctly recalled by the participants in each of the four conditions.

________________________________________

9 year olds 16 year olds

________________________________________

Shallow processing

40%

55%

Deep processing

45%

80%

________________________________________

An analysis reveals a statistically significant (reli- able) interaction between the participants’ age and the processing condition. Which of the following statements would be the best interpretation of that interaction?

(A)A deep level of processing is equally effec- tive for both age groups.

(B)There are large individual differences in the depth-of-processing effect.

(C)As children grow older, they are better able to understand how their memory can be improved with a deep level of processing.

(D)Deep processing is more effective for individuals in the concrete operations stage than for individuals in the formal operations stage.

(E)Depth of processing has little or no benefit for the 9 year olds, but more substantial benefits for the 16 year olds.

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98.David has found that emotion-focused coping helps him handle some of the stress related to his many responsibilities at school. An example of this type of coping strategy is

(A)trying to feel better about some of his less pleasant duties

(B)reevaluating his obligations so that he has fewer commitments

(C)asking people not to interrupt him while he studies

(D)using time management more effectively to plan his schedule

(E)learning new study skills to manage his study time more effectively

99.Research has revealed that the trait most associated with heart attacks in Type A individuals is

(A)engaging in high-risk behavior

(B)lack of exercise

(C)lack of sleep

(D)on-the-job failure

(E)hostility toward others

100.Which of the following is an example of a delusion?

(A)Seeing a vision of an object that is not physically present

(B)Being erroneously convinced that one’s neighbors are plotting to take over the world

(C)Having to wash one’s hands thoroughly every time one touches something

(D)Feeling pain in one’s back even though there is no physical sign of injury

(E)Experiencing great anxiety when looking at a dangerous object

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101.Which of the following best portrays the concept of sunk costs?

(A)Because Harold received high grades in the sixth grade, his teachers expect him to receive even higher grades in the seventh grade.

(B)Because a coin has landed “heads up” on the last three flips, an observer expects the next flip to result in a tail.

(C)The price of a new sweater appears to be high or low, depending on the reference point used for comparison purposes.

(D)Whenever Mary practices golf shots in the company of a better player, she tends to cut short the practice period.

(E)If the company cancels its plan now, it will lose all of the money already invested in the plan.

102.Participants were presented with a list of

24 names. The list was composed of 12 famous women and 12 men who were less well known. Upon later testing, the participants reported that there were more women on the list than men.

This finding demonstrates which of the following?

(A)The alignment heuristic

(B)The availability heuristic

(C)Effects of gender stereotypes on memory

(D)The representativeness heuristic

(E)The framing effect

103.Which of the following is NOT an example of metacognition?

(A)A student who needs to memorize French vocabulary words judges how long it has taken to learn similar words in the past in order to allot enough time to study.

(B)From prior experience, a learner knows that using imagery will help her learn the main points of speech.

(C)A student studies by repeating material over and over.

(D)After studying a text for a short time, a student tests herself and judges her perfor- mance, then decides how much more she needs to study based on this performance.

(E)A student who knows that she learns better in a quiet place decides to study in the library rather than in her dorm’s study room.

104.The changes in neural activity that occur throughout the human brain during reading can be measured by

(A)computed tomography

(B)pneumoencephalography

(C)positron emission tomography

(D)electrooculography

(E)plethysmography

105.Which of the following theorists stated that personality involves the way an individual deals with feelings of inferiority?

(A)Alfred Adler

(B)Nancy Chodorow

(C)Carl Jung

(D)Erik Erikson

(E)Albert Bandura

106.Research by Jerome Kagan and others has revealed that some young children have stronger physiological reactions to new situations than others. Children with these stronger physiological reactions are also more likely than other children to display

(A)anger

(B)greater sociability

(C)shyness

(D)higher intelligence

(E)better gross-motor coordination

107.Which of the following best describes intellectual changes that typically occur in older people?

(A)Strategies for problem solving become more flexible and unconventional.

(B)Divergent thinking increases and convergent thinking decreases.

(C)Crystallized intelligence remains stable or increases slightly.

(D)Fluid intelligence remains stable or increases slightly.

(E)Ability to memorize meaningful information decreases, but rote recall ability increases.

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108.A diathesis-stress model would be useful in explaining the etiology of all the following disorders EXCEPT

(A)hypertension

(B)bipolar disorder

(C)Down syndrome

(D)depression

(E)migraine headaches

109.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is secreted by the

(A)liver

(B)pituitary gland

(C)hypothalamus

(D)pancreas

(E)ovaries

110.Schizoaffective disorder is the diagnosis given when a person shows which of the following symptoms?

(A)The existence of more than one self or personality

(B)Severe disturbances of thinking along with

a severe mood disturbance

(C)Severe substance abuse

(D)Lack of guilt or remorse over criminal acts committed

(E)Belief that other people cannot be trusted because they intend to cause harm

111.Human brain injury that includes the region of the left superior temporal gyrus adjacent to the audi- tory cortex results in deficits characterized by

(A)good comprehension of speech but an inability to read written words

(B)grammatical speech but poor language comprehension

(C)difficulty in using closed-class grammatical forms

(D)poor ability to recognize overall patterns in visual stimuli such as words

(E)impaired perception of pain

112.When Margaret developed a minor headache, she made an appointment with her physician because she was convinced that she had a brain tumor. After a thorough examination, the physician was confident that Margaret’s headache was not pathological. Assuming that Margaret has repeatedly misinterpreted normal bodily symptoms as signs of disease, she could be diagnosed as having which of the following conditions?

(A)Body dysmorphic disorder

(B)Hypochondriasis

(C)Conversion disorder

(D)Somatization disorder

(E)Generalized anxiety disorder

113.A drug is classified as a neurotransmitter agonist. One way in which this drug could affect synaptic transmission is by

(A)blocking postsynaptic receptors

(B)decreasing synthesis

(C)decreasing the efficiency of storage

(D)increasing release

(E)increasing reuptake

114.James has always been physically agile and strong. During adolescence, he chooses to get involved in sport teams and other environments where his athletic skills are highly valued. This is an example of which type of genotype- environment correlation?

(A)Niche-picking (active relationships)

(B)Elicitation (evocative relationships)

(C)Rearing (passive relationships)

(D)Rhythmicity (temperament relationships)

(E)Practice (expertise relationships)

115.According to most cognitive therapists, psycho- logical problems are most likely to be associated with which of the following?

(A)Unconscious conflictual beliefs

(B)Low intelligence

(C)Inflexible maladaptive thoughts

(D)Incomplete schema formation

(E)Authoritarian parenting style

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116.Which of the following is the best example of the defense mechanism of rationalization?

(A)Unaware of her reputation for being selfish and miserly, Harriet often complains about her friends being cheap.

(B)Although David spoke of his supervisor

in glowing terms for months, soon after David was passed over for a raise, he became openly critical and hostile toward this supervisor.

(C)Rather than tell his wife that he was hurt by her negative remarks during an argument, Patrick decided that he would get even by storming out of the house and not returning for hours.

(D)James, who secretly dislikes his mother, and cannot accept this view, is generously loving and caring toward her.

(E)In order to deal with her disappointment about not being hired for a job, Marie convinced herself that she really did not want to work for “such a poorly run company” anyway.

117.Research regarding the risky shift phenomenon has indicated that decision making groups do not always shift in a more risky direction. The risky shift is now commonly seen as an example of which of the following?

(A)Social loafing

(B)Outgroup homogeneity

(C)Group polarization

(D)Narrowing of attention

(E)The mere exposure effect

118.Which of the following concepts would create the most cognitive dissonance for a person with strong just-world beliefs?

(A)An uninvolved bystander

(B)A hard-working winner

(C)A convicted felon

(D)An innocent victim

(E)A sore loser

119.According to Erik Erikson’s theory, the process of development occurs

(A)in three cognitive stages that are completed by five years of age

(B)throughout life in a series of psychosocial stages

(C)as a consequence of biological maturation

(D)through increasing gains in moral reasoning

(E)in response to exposure to environmental stimuli

120.When psychology first emerged as a separate discipline, it was distinguished from philosophy primarily by its emphasis on

(A)skepticism

(B)materialism

(C)deductive logic

(D)empirical data

(E)mental constructs

121.Phenylketonuria (PKU), cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs all result from

(A)recessive genetic disorders

(B)dominant genetic disorders

(C)abnormalities in the number

of chromosomes

(D)X-linked disorders

(E)Y-linked disorders

122.If a dye such as trypan blue is injected into the bloodstream of a rat, all the organs of the animal are stained blue with the exception of the brain. This finding is due to which of the following?

(A)Trypan blue is selective for tissue types other than the brain.

(B)The absorption rate of the brain for such a stain is delayed relative to other organs.

(C)The rate of injection is too rapid for proper absorption of the stain in the brain.

(D)The brain is protected by a barrier that prevents the dye from penetrating it.

(E)The brain contains agents that neutralize organic compounds such as trypan blue.

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123.Receptors in the vomeronasal organ control behavioral responses to

(A)hormones

(B)pheromones

(C)toxic odors

(D)bitter tastes

(E)loud sounds

124.Which of the following personality tests is derived mainly from the personality theory developed by Carl Jung?

(A)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

(B)Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)

(C)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)

(D)Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)

(E)Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

125.Which of the following questions regarding an individual’s performance is most directly based on Albert Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy?

(A)Does the individual act humbly with others, as judged by others?

(B)Does the individual cope effectively with his or her social environment, as judged by a consensus among expert judges?

(C)Can the individual improve his or her social skills in a training program, as judged by a social learning theorist?

(D)How does the individual perceive his or

her ability to deal effectively with the environment?

(E)How much attention does the individual give to meeting new people?

126.Investigators of the self-serving attributional bias typically compare attributions for success and attributions for failure in terms of which of the following dimensions?

(A)Globality

(B)Locus

(C)Intentionality

(D)Intensity

(E)Coherence

127.While a board of directors was attempting to make a major decision, all members felt pressure to support the group’s views and to reject ideas that were contrary to the opinions of the group. This example best illustrates

(A)group polarization

(B)group cohesiveness

(C)groupthink

(D)social facilitation

(E)sunk costs

128.Which of the following represents the best example of instrumental aggression?

(A)An employee harms her boss because she was overlooked for a raise.

(B)An angry basketball player throws the ball down in rage.

(C)A thief harms the store clerk so he can steal the money.

(D)A man breaks his computer after he cannot make it work.

(E)A patient hits the doctor because he is upset with his medical diagnosis.

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130. Which of the following depth cues would be LEAST useful to an artist attempting to create an impression of depth in a flat painting?

(A) Accommodation

(B) Linear perspective

(C) Interposition

(D) Height in the visual field

(E) Relative size

129.A person whose optic chiasm is severed as shown in the figure above is likely to maintain intact vision in the

(A)entire foveal regions of both eyes

(B)periphery of both the left and right

visual fields

(C)left visual field with the left eye and the right visual field with the right eye

(D)right visual field with the left eye and the left visual field with the right eye

(E)entire visual field with both eyes

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131.Languages contain only a subset of possible speech sounds. If a language, such as English, distinguishes between two sounds, such as “ba” and “pa,” which of the following graphs shows how a group of native English speakers will categorize sounds as they vary from obviously “ba” to obviously “pa”?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

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132.Following several sessions with Cathy, Dr. Wright makes the following statement

to her about her depression: “Your depression may be due to your interpretation of the events in your life.” Dr. Wright’s position best illustrates which theory of depression?

(A)Cognitive

(B)Behavioral

(C)Psychoanalytic

(D)Humanistic

(E)Biological

133.Suppose that a soundly conducted investigation reveals that a certain measure of cognitive ability has heritability of .40 in a subgroup of young adults. This finding best supports which of the following conclusions regarding the measure?

(A)Approximately 40% of the population have the dominant gene for this ability.

(B)Approximately 40% of the variance is attributable to genetic factors within this subgroup.

(C)Individuals lacking the genes for this ability obtain scores 40% lower than those with the genes.

(D)Heritability for the trait does not change between infancy and late adulthood within this subgroup.

(E)Heritability for the trait would be approxi- mately .40 in any other subgroup of young adults.

134.Eric displays no regard for the rights of others, shows no remorse when he abuses others, and has a repeated pattern of stealing. It is most likely that he has which of the following personality disorders?

(A)Antisocial

(B)Paranoid

(C)Narcissistic

(D)Histrionic

(E)Schizoid

135.When clustering occurs during a free recall test of memory, a participant will

(A)show little evidence of having learned the list of items

(B)associate items with objects with which the participant is familiar

(C)form an association between a place and the item being memorized

(D)place the items being memorized into long- term storage for immediate retrieval

(E)place items from a test list into categories and report the items back category by category

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136.The serial position effect describes the tendency to show which of the following patterns of free recall for a 20-item list?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

137.In an experiment, participants in group A

are required to remember lists of eight random numbers, in correct order. Participants in group B are required to remember the same lists, in the correct order, but they also work simultaneously on a task requiring spatial skills. The researchers find that the people in the two groups recall the same average number of items. These results are most consistent with which of the following explanations?

(A)The capacities of the two different compo- nents of working memory are independent of each other.

(B)Proactive interference operates in working memory for verbal material, but not for spatial material.

(C)The principle of encoding specificity does not apply when remembering a list of numbers.

(D)The capacity of working memory depends on how quickly the individual numbers can be pronounced.

(E)Auditory interference is decreased when a memory task is accompanied by a spatial task.

138.Which of the following best states the meaning of a sensitive period in development?

(A)An age period that bridges two cognitive stages, such as the transition between preoperational and concrete-operational thinking

(B)An age period during which an influence has important, long lasting, and even permanent effects

(C)An age period during which the infant or child tends to display a certain type of behavior, such as the “terrible twos”

(D)An age period during which the sense of self- worth is especially vulnerable to social criticism

(E)The age interval during which about half of the normal population develops a certain structure or function

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139.Angela sneaks into her brother’s bedroom and begins eating his candy. Her mother walks in and tells Angela that she must spend the rest

of the day in her room and that she is not allowed to watch television for a week. Angela is not allowed to question or discuss her mother’s decision. This type of parenting style is

known as

(A)authoritative

(B)authoritarian

(C)laissez-faire

(D)permissive-indifferent

(E)permissive-indulgent

140.Which of the following describes a sociometric technique?

(A)A research tool used to assess the degree to which children are liked by their peers

(B)A research tool used to assess physical changes during puberty

(C)A research tool used to assess attachment to both mothers and fathers during infancy

(D)A computer-based indicator of moral development

(E)A computer-based model used to calculate social status from personality test scores

141.Five-year-old Anthony is shown two rows of pictures. One row has pictures of three dogs; the other has pictures of seven cats. When asked, “Are there more cats or more animals?” he answers “More cats”. Anthony still lacks the mental operation that Jean Piaget calls

(A)centration

(B)animism

(C)artificialism

(D)assimilation

(E)class inclusion

142.Which of the following is considered a likely reason for the cognitive declines that affect many people after middle age?

(A)Decreased processing speed

(B)Decreased ability to store memories

(C)Decreased visual acuity

(D)Increased auditory masking

(E)Increased susceptibility to depression

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143.Suppose that Komiko has just won a congres- sional election. A number of voters remark that they had always been confident that Komiko would win. During the campaign, however, some of these same voters had expressed their doubts about the outcome. This example illustrates which of the following concepts in decision-making?

(A)Hindsight bias

(B)The representativeness heuristic

(C)The availability heuristic

(D)The framing effect

(E)The conjunction fallacy

144.A group of experts in a specialized area were able to solve complex problems in their area of expertise more effectively than a group of novices of equal general intelligence. Which of the following most plausibly explains the better performances of the experts?

(A)The experts devoted more time initially to grasping the surface features of the problem.

(B)The experts had developed superior chunking routines for processing the specialized information.

(C)The experts had developed heuristics for reducing the speed of short-term memory decay.

(D)The experts had developed larger short-term memory capacities, both within and outside the specialized area.

(E)The experts had developed larger long-term memory capacities, both within and outside the specialized area.

145.Research on problem solving indicates that heuristic search strategies, compared with algorithmic strategies, are

(A)slower

(B)more efficient

(C)more exhaustive

(D)more accurate

(E)less sophisticated

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146.A diagnostic test for a disease has 95 percent accuracy, but the incidence of the disease is low, only 1 in 1,000. This means that when this test is used for diagnosis, which of the following will be true?

(A)There will be many more misses than false alarms.

(B)There will be many more false alarms than misses.

(C)The number of false alarms and misses will be equal.

(D)If patients are told that they have the disease, there is a 95% chance that they actually have it.

(E)If patients are told that they do not have the disease, there is a 95% chance that they do not actually have it.

147.Which of the following would produce the best long-term retention of material being studied?

(A)Studying the material five times with little time between repetitions while focusing on the sounds of the material

(B)Studying the material five times with little time between repetitions while focusing on the meaning of the material

(C)Studying the material five times with several days between repetitions while focusing on the sounds of the material

(D)Studying the material five times with several days between repetitions while focusing on the meaning of the material

(E)Studying the material only once while focusing on both the meaning and sound characteristics of the material

148.In operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning), the procedure for extinction of a response is to

(A)present the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus

(B)present the unconditioned stimulus without the conditioned stimulus

(C)withhold all reinforcements after responses

(D)punish all responses

(E)provide a prolonged period of time without any exposure to the training stimuli

149.According to the drive-reduction theory of Clark Hull, motives can be described as a search for homeostasis. Which of the following best supports this view?

(A)Monkeys exert substantial effort to puzzle out how to open latches attached to a wooden board.

(B)Drug addicts require ever increasing doses to produce a “high.”

(C)Laboratory animals will seek out saccharin, a sweet substance with no nutritional value.

(D)Employees will work an additional twenty hours a week to receive a bonus.

(E)Mice will learn to negotiate a maze in order to obtain a substance with nutritional value.

150.Consider the diagram above in which a researcher is predicting college grade point average (GPA) using the SAT scores and high school GPA of 1,000 students. Which of the following statistical techniques would the researcher most likely use to analyze the data?

(A)Meta-analysis

(B)Chi-square

(C)Multiple regression

(D)Cluster analysis

(E)Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

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151.Magdelena has a large bilateral lesion in her orbitofrontal cortex which has caused a number of disturbances in her behavior. Which of the following symptoms are most likely to be evident in Magdelena?

(A)She is capable of feeling pain in her lower extremities, but pain sensations in her upper extremities are absent.

(B)Her language abilities are seriously com- promised by an inability to understand either spoken or written language.

(C)Although her fine motor movements are unaffected, her gait is seriously impaired.

(D)Her procedural memory is intact, but she suffers disruption of her episodic and semantic memory.

(E)Although she responds appropriately to hypothetical moral dilemmas, she fails to exhibit normal social behavior in her own life.

152.NOT SCORED

153.NOT SCORED

154.A factorial design is one that has

(A)one independent variable and one dependent variable

(B)one independent variable and two or more dependent variables

(C)two or more independent variables and one dependent variable

(D)two or more independent variables and no dependent variable

(E)no independent variable and two dependent variables

155.Which of the following is an important character- istic of a normal distribution of a set of scores?

(A)About 34% of all the scores fall in the area between 1 standard deviation below the mean to 1 standard deviation above the mean.

(B)The mean, mode, and median are identical.

(C)The mean is at least 4 times the standard deviation.

(D)Extreme scores are excluded as “outliers.”

(E)The mean is always 100.

156.Research demonstrates that when nurses regularly discuss prenatal care, parenting skills, and child development with pregnant adolescents at risk for child maltreatment, the nurses’ visits reduce the likelihood of maltreatment by as much as

75 percent. These nurse visitation programs represent which form of intervention for child maltreatment?

(A)Crisis intervention

(B)Primary prevention

(C)Cognitive-behavioral therapy

(D)Systematic desensitization

(E)Nondirective counseling

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157.Which of the following has a known organic basis?

(A)Dissociative fugue

(B)Somatoform disorder

(C)Dissociative identity disorder

(D)Amnestic disorder

(E)Depersonalization disorder

158.All of the following statements about children who have pervasive developmental disorder are true EXCEPT:

(A)Many have a comorbid diagnosis of mental retardation.

(B)Many can be mainstreamed into regular education classes for some academic subjects.

(C)Many recover by age 18.

(D)Many exhibit neurological anomalies.

(E)Many have experienced prenatal or perinatal trauma.

159.Juan is a man who has just admitted himself to an inpatient psychiatric unit for treatment of an anxiety disorder. In addition to his psychological condition, Juan has indicated that he also has diabetes. Using the multiaxial diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), the clinician would specify each disorder on which axis?

 

Anxiety Disorder

Diabetes

(A)

Axis I

Axis II

(B)

Axis I

Axis III

(C)

Axis I

Axis IV

(D)

Axis II

Axis III

(E)

Axis II

Axis IV

160.Gonadal hormones can act upon the brains of adult animals to alter the frequency or intensity, but not the form, of their sexual behavior. Such effects are referred to as

(A)activational

(B)dominant

(C)initiating

(D)organizational

(E)triggering

161.Most antipsychotic medications work by blocking receptors for which of the following neurotransmitters?

(A)Acetylcholine

(B)GABA

(C)Dopamine

(D)Serotonin

(E)Norepinephrine

162.Which of the following arguments is most central to the view that innate factors have an important effect on language acquisition?

(A)Children learn language more rapidly when their semantic errors are corrected than when such errors are ignored.

(B)Young children tend to overextend the meanings of some words.

(C)Linguistic cues that are available in the environment are too limited to enable language learning.

(D)Toddlers are more inclined to imitate the speech of their parents than the speech of strangers.

(E)Most of the concepts from a world language can be translated accurately into any other world language.

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163.Even when the best solution may be an alternative strategy, a participant tested on a new set of problems continues to apply a solution that had been applied successfully in a number of previous trials. The participant is exhibiting

(A)a mental set

(B)belief bias

(C)a confirmation bias

(D)retroactive interference

(E)a hill-climbing heuristic

164.In the two-string problem, a person enters a room in which two strings are hanging from the ceiling. The task is to tie the two strings together. Unfor- tunately, the strings are positioned far enough apart so that the person cannot grab one string and hold onto it while reaching for the other.

The solution is to use a nearby pair of pliers as a weight to make one string swing like a pendulum.

When problem solvers have difficulty seeing the pliers as a pendulum weight, they are displaying

(A)functional fixedness

(B)insight

(C)divergent thinking

(D)convergent thinking

(E)brainstorming

165.Which of the following is an example of confirmation bias?

(A)Janet thinks that there is a bus leaving at 3:00 P.M., but she checks the schedule anyway to make sure this is so.

(B)Ahmet believes that his friend lied to him, so he reviews their recent conversation looking for instances in which the friend may have lied.

(C)Philip is constantly checking to see if he locked the door to his house, left any lights on, or forgot to complete any of several common tasks.

(D)Although LaToya’s travel agent told her

to confirm that her flight was leaving on time, LaToya did not follow this advice, reasoning that it probably would leave on time.

(E)Roy has no confidence in his own ability to reason, so he readily accepts the conclusions of others.

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QUESTIONS 166-169 REFER TO THE INFORMATION BELOW.

A stranger boards a crowded city bus. As the bus lurches into motion, the stranger steps squarely on Mario’s toes. In pain, Mario reacts by stepping backward onto the foot of a fellow passenger. The stranger apologizes to Mario and to the fellow passenger. As Mario rides along, he ponders the causes for this chain of events.

166.If Mario had stepped on the passenger’s foot because he was still disturbed over an argument he had had that day with his boss, Mario’s behavior would be an example of

(A)displacement

(B)repression

(C)rationalization

(D)identification

(E)reaction formation

167.If Mario commits the fundamental attribution error, he will most likely see the cause of the stranger’s transgression as

(A)accidental (due to chance)

(B)situational

(C)global

(D)dispositional

(E)distinctive

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168.An aggressive person, prone toward the hostile attribution bias, would see the cause of the stranger’s transgression as

(A)situational

(B)accidental (due to chance)

(C)intentional

(D)global

(E)consensual

169.If Mario had been depressed at the time that

the stranger stepped on his toes, he would be less likely to commit which of the following mistakes in his search for the cause?

(A)Correspondence bias

(B)Actor-observer effect

(C)Self-serving bias

(D)Fundamental attribution error

(E)Hindsight bias

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170.Below is the learning curve described by Clark Hull’s theory of learning.

This learning curve shows

(A)a positively accelerated function

(B)a negatively accelerated function

(C)that learning occurs slowly at first and then faster

(D)that habit strength increases indefinitely with successive reinforcements

(E)that each reinforcement has the same effect on habit strength

171.A rat is exposed to a faint, 10-decibel (dB) tone followed by an electric shock. A second rat is exposed to a loud, 60 dB tone followed by a shock of the same intensity. The first rat is likely to do which of the following?

(A)Take longer than the second rat to show a CR

(B)Show a stronger CR than the second rat

(C)Acquire the CR faster than the second rat

(D)Show differential inhibition

(E)Show the response suppression effect

172.The concept of preparedness or belongingness, as applied to animal learning or to human acquisition of phobias, refers to the idea that most individuals

(A)with certain emotional temperaments learn more readily than others

(B)are born with a predisposition to make some associations more readily than others

(C)more readily learn an association if it is similar to what they have learned in the past

(D)more readily learn an association if it is different from what they have learned in the past

(E)are prepared for situations encountered in the future as a result of information learned in the past

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173.Above are two graphs showing the time that it took an animal to escape from a confined area. According to the graphs, what type of learning has occurred?

(A)Graph A shows incremental learning; graph B shows insightful learning.

(B)Graph A shows insightful learning; graph B shows incremental learning.

(C)Graph A shows all-or-none learning; graph B shows nonincremental learning.

(D)Graph A shows nonincremental learning; graph B shows all-or-none learning.

(E)Graph A supports Kohler’s view of learning; graph B supports Thorndike’s view of learning.

174.Suppose that an employer has offered her employees a small increase in salary for the coming year. In an argument against accepting this offer, a spokesperson for the workers said that if they accept the small salary increase, then the employer will soon require a longer workday and then offer fewer benefits. What type of argument is the spokesperson making?

(A)An argument against the person

(B)An argument by analogy

(C)A slippery slope argument

(D)A cost-ratio analysis

(E)A brute force argument

175.Controversial status children, as indicated by a peer sociometric, are those who receive

(A)many liked nominations

(B)many disliked nominations

(C)many liked and many disliked nominations

(D)few liked and many disliked nominations

(E)many liked and few disliked nominations

176.Muzafer Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment is a classic demonstration of the effects of

(A)mutual interdependence

(B)lowballing

(C)group polarization

(D)reward power

(E)groupthink

177.Jacinta studied all Tuesday morning for her geography test that evening. Tuesday afternoon she read a novel that took place in South America. When Jacinta sat down to take her test that evening, she complained that reading the novel made her forget most of the facts about geography she had studied in the morning. Which of the following accounts for her problem?

(A)Retroactive interference

(B)Proactive interference

(C)Small working memory

(D)Semantic priming

(E)Repetition priming

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178.Which of the following experimental results provides evidence for an acoustical code in working memory?

(A)Visual imagery can be a powerful mnemonic device.

(B)Most right-handers show a right-hemisphere advantage in recall for melodies and a left- hemisphere advantage in recall for sentences.

(C)Speech sounds that were not part of some- one’s first language are difficult to detect and reproduce later in life.

(D)Adults who have been deaf since birth are able to guess at the spelling of novel words even though they have never heard them.

(E)Participants make more errors in recalling letter pairs that sound alike (e.g., B and C), than in pairs that look alike (e.g., E and F).

179.Tameka and Joe are having difficulty remembering the street where a friend lives. Joe says that he thinks the street is named for

a type of tree. Tameka immediately says, “Maple Street,” which is correct. This is an example of

(A)cued recall

(B)free recall

(C)implicit memory

(D)recognition memory

(E)relearning

180.Research conducted by Kathryn Bock shows that specific syntactic constructions can prime later syntactic constructions. This indicates that people do which of the following when speaking?

(A)Use the same words in later sentences that they heard in earlier sentences

(B)Use the same sentence structures in later sentences that they heard in earlier sentences

(C)Repeat the same phonemes in later sentences that they heard in earlier sentences

(D)Repeat the same meanings of sentences even though they use different words

(E)Produce transformational grammar if they heard phrase structure grammar earlier

181.Why is it difficult or impossible to taste your food when you have a head cold?

(A)Cold viruses deaden papillae, or taste buds.

(B)Colds impair the ability to smell, which is important for sensing flavor.

(C)Colds often lead to depression, which impairs enjoyment of normal activities.

(D)Colds bring fever, which reduces the experience of all sensations, including taste.

(E)Cold symptoms function as distractions that focus attention on pain and discomfort.

182.Complete this analogy: Vision is to retina as

(A)smell is to Pacinian corpuscles

(B)hearing is to basilar membrane

(C)touch is to photoreceptors

(D)taste is to otolith

(E)kinesthesis is to epithelium

183.Which of the following types of change is the listener most likely to notice in an unattended message?

(A)A change in topic

(B)A change in emotional content, such as

from happy to sad

(C)A change in style, such as from poetry to narrative

(D)A change from a woman’s voice to a man’s voice

(E)A change from short sentences to long sentences

184.In an art museum, you stare at a picture of red and green squares. Your gaze switches to a blank, white wall, and for a brief moment you see an image of the painting with the colors in opposite places. The most likely cause of this is

(A)an increase in sensitivity of the red and green receptive fields

(B)opponent processes in the retinal red-green ganglion cells

(C)a switch to the opposite blue-yellow receptive fields

(D)the breakdown of the rods

(E)a switch of photopigments between the red and the green cones

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185.A preschool child uses a toy steering wheel to pretend she is driving a car. This type of make- believe play can occur when the child is capable of which of the following skills?

(A)Concrete thought

(B)Divergent thought

(C)Symbolic thought

(D)Understanding rules

(E)Private speech

186.Which statement is an example of a negative correlation?

(A)Delinquent children are likely to become adult criminal offenders.

(B)When the economy is good, more people go to college.

(C)When food consumption increases, weight increases.

(D)The more hours a teenager is employed, the lower his or her grades are.

(E)Children who are rewarded for good behavior will grow up to lead productive lives.

187.Dorothy is not sure how to behave toward her supervisor when she first starts her new job. She watches her coworkers and copies their behavior, believing that this will help her act appropriately. Dorothy is showing signs that she is

(A)a low self-monitor

(B)a high self-monitor

(C)high in self-esteem

(D)self-handicapping

(E)self-actualizing

188.The use of which of the following is the strongest indicator that work has been designed or rede- signed according to sociotechnical principles?

(A)Self-directed teams of workers

(B)An assembly line for production

(C)An open-plan office

(D)Computers in manufacturing

(E)Piece-rate pay systems

189.Which of the principles of Wilhelm Wundt would the Gestalt psychologists have found most objectionable?

(A)Research can be conducted on sensory and perceptual phenomena.

(B)Experiments should be replicated.

(C)People can be asked to report on the quality of their perceptual experiences.

(D)A perceptual experience can be analyzed into its separate component elements.

(E)It is possible to state general psychological principles that apply to almost all people.

190.Beginning in the late 1950s and early 1960s, cognitive psychology became a powerful force within the field of psychology. Which of the following was a factor that helped in those years to spur this “Cognitive Revolution” forward?

(A)Development of brain imaging technologies such as MRI

(B)An emphasis on directly-observable, rather than inferred, mechanisms

(C)Meta-analysis of gender comparisons

(D)Developments in our understanding of parallel processing techniques

(E)Development of digital computers

191.Hermann Ebbinghaus’ studies of list learning were based on an assumption that most research psychologists today doubt. That assumption was that

(A)children go through distinct stages in the development of their capacity to learn and remember

(B)learning and memory improve with practice and weaken with the passage of time

(C)learning and memory are fundamentally bio- logical processes

(D)studying any convenient example of learning or memory produces results that generalize to all examples

(E)it can be useful to study learning and memory in a laboratory setting

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192.Severe injury to which of the following brain areas is most likely to be life threatening?

(A)Motor cortex

(B)Occipital lobe

(C)Hippocampus

(D)Hindbrain

(E)Broca’s area

193.Which of the following brain structures inhibits parental behavior in rodents?

(A)Medial amygdala

(B)Mammillary bodies

(C)Corpus callosum

(D)Thalamus

(E)Ventromedial hypothalamus

194.Participants in an experiment responded passively when confronted with inescapable noise. Later, they continued to behave passively in a situation in which the noise could be terminated by performing an instrumental response. This situation best illustrates

(A)internal locus of control

(B)self-handicapping

(C)learned helplessness

(D)hedonic bias

(E)illusory control

195.Charles Spearman introduced the concept of g to account for the observation that

(A)an individual’s scores on various tests of intellectual performance correlate positively with one another

(B)genetic influences account for a significant proportion of the variance in intellectual performance

(C)raw scores on any test of intellectual perfor- mance tend to increase as a child grows and develops

(D)performance on language tests and visuospa- tial tests show small but consistent gender differences

(E)crystallized intelligence remains steady in aging populations, although fluid intelli- gence declines

196.Sociobiologists are most likely to endorse which of the following ideas?

(A)People learn social behaviors through avoidance of punishment.

(B)Biology plays a strong role in behavior in infancy and early childhood, but not in adulthood.

(C)Many social behaviors have evolved and have a strong biological basis.

(D)Socialization is more important than biology in social development.

(E)Most individual differences in social behavior are due to differences in intelligence among people.

197.When he heard a child screaming, Phillip looked to see what other people were doing. Because they looked calm and unconcerned, Phillip decided that nothing needed to be done and did not go help the child. This is an example of

(A)the actor-observer effect

(B)the false-consensus effect

(C)pluralistic ignorance

(D)social loafing

(E)cognitive dissonance

198.When reading, literate adults vary LEAST with regard to

(A)speed in reading a typical page of text

(B)comprehension of a typical page of text

(C)the ratio of comprehension to speed of reading

(D)duration of each eye fixation on a page of print

(E)number of letters perceived during a given eye fixation

199.A normally quiet child accidently drops a book in her kindergarten class, drawing the teacher’s attention. The teacher issues a mild reprimand:

“Susan, please don’t make so much noise.” Over the next week, Susan does make noise, once or twice a day at first, increasing over the week to several times a day. This example illustrates which of the following?

(A)Classical conditioning

(B)Paired associate learning

(C)Observational learning

(D)Operant conditioning

(E)Implicit learning

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200.Research on the relationship between emotional disclosure and immune functioning indicates which of the following?

(A)Inhibiting expression of negative emotions is associated with increased immune functioning, whereas expressing negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning.

(B)Inhibiting expression of negative emotions is associated with increased immune functioning when the inhibition is due to personality style, but not when it is due to negative social consequences.

(C)Expressing negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning, whereas expressing positive emotions

is associated with increased immune functioning.

(D)Expressing negative emotions is associated with increased immune function, whereas inhibiting negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning.

(E)There is no consistent relationship between either expressing or inhibiting emotions and immune functioning.

201.Eighteen-year-old David received a large inheritance from his grandfather. Rather than using the money to pay for his tuition, he decided to buy a new sports car. According to Sigmund Freud, David shows signs of a

(A)strong id

(B)strong ego

(C)strong superego

(D)weak preconscious

(E)weak collective unconscious

202.In Gordon Allport’s taxonomy of traits, some individuals develop a trait that is experienced as a “ruling passion” and dominates most aspects of that individual’s behavior. In Allport’s taxonomy, such a trait is known as

(A)cardinal

(B)common

(C)constitutional

(D)secondary

(E)unique

203.Tara is a sixteen-year-old adolescent who describes herself with one set of self-attributes in relation to her family, another set of self-attributes in relation to her friends, and still another set of self-attributes in relation to her romantic partner. Tara’s self-concept is characterized as

(A)self-conscious

(B)containing numerous contradictions

(C)focusing on ideal selves

(D)focusing on false selves

(E)differentiated

204.When presented with a collection of melodies, some of which had been presented earlier, a patient with Korsakoff’s amnesia is unable to identify the melodies that were already heard.

If asked which melodies were preferred, however, the patient shows a preference for the familiar melodies. This phenomenon supports the notion that

(A)the auditory cortex is seriously compromised in a Korsakoff’s patient

(B)Korsakoff’s syndrome is better characterized as an attention deficit disorder than a memory deficit

(C)retrograde amnesia is not as severe as anterograde amnesia in these patients

(D)explicit memory function has a different neurological basis than implicit memory function

(E)working memory function is only mildly impaired in Korsakoff’s amnesia

205.The transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory is disrupted by bilateral destruction of which part of the brain?

(A)Hippocampus

(B)Thalamus

(C)Corpus callosum

(D)Medulla

(E)Reticular formation

S T O P

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Your score will be determined by subtracting one-fourth the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers. Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring. If you have some knowledge of a question and are able to rule out one or more of the answer choices as incorrect, your chances of selecting the correct answer are improved, and answering such questions will likely improve your score. It is unlikely that pure guessing will raise your score; it may lower your score.

You are advised to use your time effectively and to work as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult for you. Go on to the other questions and come back to the difficult ones later if you can.

YOU MUST INDICATE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination book, but you may write in the book as much as you wish to work out your answers. After you have decided on your response to a question, fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. BE SURE THAT EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE OVAL. Mark only one answer to each question. No credit will be given for multiple answers. Erase all stray marks. If you change an answer, be sure that all previous marks are erased completely. Incomplete erasures may be read as intended answers. Do not be concerned that the answer sheet provides spaces for more answers than there are questions in the test.

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Scoring Your Subject Test

The Psychology Test scores are reported on a 200 to 990 score scale in ten-point increments. The actual range of scores is smaller, and it varies from edition to edition because different editions are not of precisely the same difi culty. However, this variation in score range is usually small and should be taken into account mainly when comparing two very high scores. In general, differences between scores at the 99th percentile should be ignored. The score conversion table on page 55 shows the score range for this edition of the test only.

Subscores are reported as two-digit scaled scores. The maximum possible range of Subject Test subscores is 20 to 99. Like total scores, the actual range of subscores for any test or test edition may be smaller than 20 to 99.

The worksheet on page 54 lists the correct answers to the questions. Columns are provided for you to mark whether you chose the correct (C) answer or an incorrect (I) answer to each question. Draw a line across any question you omitted, because it is not

counted in the scoring. At the bottom of the page, enter the total number correct and the total number incorrect. Divide the total incorrect by 4 and subtract the resulting number from the total correct. Then round the result to the nearest whole number. This will give you your raw total score. Use the total score conversion table to i nd the scaled total score that corresponds to your raw total score.

Example: Suppose you chose the correct answers to 123 questions and incorrect answers to 42. Dividing

42 by 4 yields 10.5. Subtracting 10.5 from 123 equals 112.5, which is rounded to 113. The raw score of 113 corresponds to a scaled score of 600.

The subscore columns in the worksheet can be similarly used to tally your correct and incorrect responses to the questions that contribute to each subscore. We suggest that you circle the “

chose the correct answer, and put a minus sign beside the “. Space is provided

at the bottom right of the worksheet to calculate and enter your two raw subscores. The subscore conversion table will show you the scaled subscores that correspond to your subscores.

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

53

PRACTICE BOOK

Worksheet for the Psychology Test, Form GR0781

Answer Key and Percentage* of Examinees Answering Each Question Correctly

QUESTION

P+

RESPONSE

SUBSCORE

Number

 

Answer

C

 

I

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

A

97

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

A

89

 

 

 

3

 

B

75

 

 

 

4

 

A

49

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

D

54

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

B

28

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

D

51

 

 

 

8

 

E

58

 

 

 

9

 

B

23

 

 

 

10

 

D

58

 

 

 

11

 

D

71

 

 

 

 

 

12

 

D

56

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

D

67

 

 

 

 

 

14

 

E

75

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

D

57

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

A

76

 

 

 

 

 

17

 

C

63

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

C

60

 

 

 

19

 

E

48

 

 

 

20

 

B

83

 

 

 

21

**

**

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

 

C

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

 

C

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

 

A

89

 

 

 

 

 

25

 

D

84

 

 

 

 

 

26

 

D

44

 

 

 

 

 

27

 

D

79

 

 

 

 

 

28

 

B

55

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

 

B

73

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

A

88

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

A

80

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

D

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

 

E

87

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

 

A

59

 

 

 

35

 

B

45

 

 

 

36

 

C

50

 

 

 

37

 

E

90

 

 

 

 

 

38

 

B

35

 

 

 

 

 

39

 

A

79

 

 

 

 

 

40

 

D

66

 

 

 

 

 

41

 

A

93

 

 

 

42

 

B

91

 

 

 

 

 

43

 

D

92

 

 

 

 

 

44

 

B

50

 

 

 

45

 

C

47

 

 

 

46

 

C

43

 

 

 

47

 

A

69

 

 

 

48

 

B

85

 

 

 

 

 

49

 

C

82

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

C

77

 

 

 

 

 

51

 

D

55

 

 

 

52

 

A

56

 

 

 

53

 

D

89

 

 

 

54

 

A

73

 

 

 

 

 

55

 

B

50

 

 

 

 

 

56

 

E

69

 

 

 

 

 

57

 

A

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

 

B

69

 

 

 

59

 

B

59

 

 

 

60

 

B

91

 

 

 

61

 

B

77

 

 

 

 

 

 

62

 

D

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

63

 

A

81

 

 

 

 

 

 

64

 

D

54

 

 

 

 

 

65

 

E

33

 

 

 

 

 

66

 

C

80

 

 

 

 

 

67

 

E

35

 

 

 

 

 

68

**

**

 

 

 

 

 

 

69

 

E

69

 

 

 

70

 

A

55

 

 

 

71

 

D

94

 

 

 

72

 

E

78

 

 

 

73

 

D

63

 

 

 

 

 

74

 

C

44

 

 

 

 

 

75

 

B

68

 

 

 

QUESTION

P+

RESPONSE

SUBSCORE

Number

 

Answer

C

 

I

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76

 

D

95

 

 

 

 

 

77

 

A

77

 

 

 

 

 

78

 

A

76

 

 

 

 

 

79

 

B

90

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

B

58

 

 

 

 

 

81

 

D

89

 

 

 

 

 

82

 

D

74

 

 

 

 

 

83

 

A

73

 

 

 

 

 

84

 

E

73

 

 

 

 

 

 

85

 

C

19

 

 

 

86

 

D

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

87

 

B

79

 

 

 

 

 

 

88

 

D

19

 

 

 

89

 

B

55

 

 

 

90

 

B

21

 

 

 

91

 

B

79

 

 

 

 

 

 

92

 

A

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

93

 

E

73

 

 

 

 

 

 

94

 

C

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

95

 

B

72

 

 

 

 

 

 

96

 

D

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

97

 

E

56

 

 

 

 

 

 

98

 

A

91

 

 

 

 

 

99

 

E

44

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

B

86

 

 

 

 

 

101

 

E

36

 

 

 

102

 

B

46

 

 

 

103

 

C

68

 

 

 

104

 

C

61

 

 

 

105

 

A

64

 

 

 

 

 

106

 

C

48

 

 

 

 

 

107

 

C

51

 

 

 

 

 

108

 

C

88

 

 

 

 

 

109

 

B

63

 

 

 

110

 

B

79

 

 

 

 

 

111

 

B

43

 

 

 

112

 

B

85

 

 

 

 

 

113

 

D

41

 

 

 

114

 

A

69

 

 

 

 

 

115

 

C

78

 

 

 

 

 

116

 

E

96

 

 

 

 

 

117

 

C

70

 

 

 

 

 

118

 

D

81

 

 

 

 

 

119

 

B

92

 

 

 

 

 

120

 

D

71

 

 

 

 

 

 

121

 

A

65

 

 

 

122

 

D

71

 

 

 

123

 

B

41

 

 

 

124

 

A

34

 

 

 

 

 

125

 

D

73

 

 

 

 

 

126

 

B

69

 

 

 

 

 

127

 

C

65

 

 

 

 

 

128

 

C

43

 

 

 

 

 

129

 

D

49

 

 

 

130

 

A

74

 

 

 

131

 

D

22

 

 

 

132

 

A

78

 

 

 

 

 

133

 

B

49

 

 

 

134

 

A

89

 

 

 

 

 

135

 

E

88

 

 

 

136

 

A

72

 

 

 

137

 

A

71

 

 

 

138

 

B

74

 

 

 

 

 

139

 

B

80

 

 

 

 

 

140

 

A

57

 

 

 

 

 

141

 

E

50

 

 

 

 

 

142

 

A

70

 

 

 

 

 

143

 

A

78

 

 

 

144

 

B

63

 

 

 

145

 

B

57

 

 

 

146

 

B

27

 

 

 

147

 

D

80

 

 

 

148

 

C

55

 

 

 

149

 

E

39

 

 

 

150

 

C

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION

P+

RESPONSE

SUBSCORE

Number

 

Answer

C

 

I

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

151

 

E

40

 

 

 

152

**

**

 

 

 

 

 

 

153

**

**

 

 

 

 

 

 

154

 

C

48

 

 

 

 

 

 

155

 

B

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

156

 

B

88

 

 

 

 

 

157

 

D

47

 

 

 

 

 

158

 

C

73

 

 

 

 

 

159

 

B

53

 

 

 

 

 

160

 

A

28

 

 

 

161

 

C

57

 

 

 

162

 

C

31

 

 

 

163

 

A

55

 

 

 

164

 

A

87

 

 

 

165

 

B

59

 

 

 

166

 

A

95

 

 

 

 

 

167

 

D

68

 

 

 

 

 

168

 

C

96

 

 

 

 

 

169

 

C

39

 

 

 

 

 

170

 

B

16

 

 

 

171

 

A

75

 

 

 

172

 

B

28

 

 

 

173

 

A

68

 

 

 

174

 

C

44

 

 

 

 

 

175

 

C

64

 

 

 

 

 

176

 

A

27

 

 

 

 

 

177

 

A

59

 

 

 

178

 

E

49

 

 

 

179

 

A

92

 

 

 

180

 

B

61

 

 

 

181

 

B

89

 

 

 

182

 

B

82

 

 

 

183

 

D

64

 

 

 

184

 

B

71

 

 

 

185

 

C

81

 

 

 

 

 

186

 

D

95

 

 

 

 

 

 

187

 

B

71

 

 

 

 

 

188

 

A

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

189

 

D

51

 

 

 

 

 

 

190

 

E

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

191

 

D

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

192

 

D

74

 

 

 

193

 

A

27

 

 

 

194

 

C

89

 

 

 

195

 

A

37

 

 

 

 

 

 

196

 

C

86

 

 

 

 

 

197

 

C

25

 

 

 

 

 

198

 

E

47

 

 

 

199

 

D

52

 

 

 

200

 

D

48

 

 

 

 

 

201

 

A

85

 

 

 

 

 

202

 

A

80

 

 

 

 

 

203

 

E

61

 

 

 

 

 

204

 

D

60

 

 

 

205

 

A

68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Correct (C)

Total Incorrect (I)

Total Score:

C I/4 = ____________

Scaled Score (SS) = ____________

Subscores

1)C I/4 = ____________ SS = ____________

2)C I/4 = ____________ SS = ____________

Total Correct (C)

 

Total Correct (C)

Total Incorrect (I)

 

Total Incorrect (I)

* The P+ column indicates the percent of PSYCHOLOGY Test examinees who answered each question correctly; it is based on a sample of October 2007 examinees selected to represent all PSYCHOLOGY Test examinees tested between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2008.

** Items 21, 68, 152, and 153 are not included in the scoring of this form of the test.

Score Conversions and the

Percents Below* for

GRE Psychology Test Form GR0781

TOTAL SCORE

Raw Score

Scaled Score

%

Raw Score

Scaled Score

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

200-201

880

99

98-101

560

31

197-199

870

99

95-97

550

28

194-196

860

99

92-94

540

25

191-193

850

99

89-91

530

22

188-190

840

99

86-88

520

20

184-187

830

99

83-85

510

18

181-183

820

99

79-82

500

15

178-180

810

99

 

 

 

175-177

800

99

76-78

490

13

 

 

 

73-75

480

12

172-174

790

98

70-72

470

10

168-171

780

97

67-69

460

9

165-167

770

96

63-66

450

7

162-164

760

95

60-62

440

6

159-161

750

93

57-59

430

5

156-158

740

91

54-56

420

4

153-155

730

89

51-53

410

4

149-152

720

86

48-50

400

3

146-148

710

84

 

 

 

143-145

700

81

44-47

390

2

 

 

 

41-43

380

2

140-142

690

77

38-40

370

1

137-139

680

74

35-37

360

1

133-136

670

70

32-34

350

1

130-132

660

67

28-31

340

1

127-129

650

63

25-27

330

1

124-126

640

60

22-24

320

1

121-123

630

56

19-21

310

1

118-120

620

52

16-18

300

1

114-117

610

48

 

 

 

111-113

600

44

13-15

290

1

 

 

 

9-12

280

1

108-110

590

41

6-8

270

1

105-107

580

37

3-5

260

1

102-104

570

34

0-2

250

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Percent scoring below the scaled score is based on the performance of 24,459 examinees who took the PSYCHOLOGY Test between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2008. This percent below information was used for score reports during the 2009-10 testing year.

Score Conversions for

GRE Psychology Test Subscores

Form GR0781

SUBSCORES

 

Raw Scores

Scaled

 

Raw Scores

Scaled

 

Sub 1

Sub 2

Score

 

Sub 1

Sub 2

Score

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

81-82

 

87

31

45

53

80

 

86

29-30

43-44

52

78-79

 

85

28

42

51

77

86-87

84

26-27

41

50

75-76

85

83

 

 

 

 

74

84

82

25

39-40

49

72-73 82-83

81

23-24

38

48

71

81

80

22

37

47

 

 

 

 

20-21 35-36

46

70

80

79

19

34

45

68-69 78-79

78

17-18

32-33

44

67

77

77

16

31

43

65-66

76

76

14-15

30

42

64

74-75

75

13

28-29

41

62-63

73

74

11-12

27

40

61

72

73

 

 

 

 

59-60 70-71

72

10

26

39

58

69

71

8-9

24-25

38

56-57

68

70

7

23

37

 

 

 

 

5-6

22

36

55

66-67

69

4

20-21

35

53-54

65

68

2-3

19

34

52

63-64

67

1

18

33

50-51

62

66

0

16-17

32

49

61

65

 

 

15

31

47-48 59-60

64

 

 

14

30

46

58

63

 

 

 

 

44-45

57

62

 

 

12-13

29

43

55-56

61

 

 

11

28

41-42

54

60

 

 

10

27

 

 

 

 

 

 

8-9

26

40

53

59

 

 

7

25

38-39 51-52

58

 

 

6

24

37

50

57

 

 

4-5

23

35-36

49

56

 

 

3

22

34

47-48

55

 

 

1-2

21

32-33

46

54

 

 

0

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

55

PRACTICE BOOK

Evaluating Your

Performance

Now that you have scored your test, you may wish to compare your performance with the performance of others who took this test. Both the worksheet on page 54 and the table on page 55 use performance data from GRE Psychology Test examinees.

The data in the worksheet on page 54 are based on the performance of a sample of the examinees who took this test in October 2007. This sample was selected to represent the total population of GRE Psychology Test examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2008. The numbers in the column labeled “P+” on the worksheet indicate the percentages of examinees in this sample who answered each question correctly. You may use these numbers as a guide for evaluating your performance on each test question.

The i rst table on page 55 contains, for each scaled score, the percentage of examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2008 who received lower scores. Interpretive data based on the scores earned by examinees tested in this three-year period will be used by admissions ofi cers in the 2009-10 testing year. These percentages appear in the score conversion table in a column to the right of the scaled scores. For example, in the percentage column opposite the scaled score of 600 is the number 44. This means that 44 percent of the GRE Psychology Test examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2008 scored lower than

600.To compare yourself with this population, look at the percentage next to the scaled score you earned on the practice test.

Your two subscores show your relative strengths or weaknesses in the two subi eld areas of the GRE Psychology Test. The raw subscores are scaled in such a way that they are related to the total scores on the test. On the average, a person who has a comprehensive background in the i eld can expect to have subscores equal to about one-tenth of his or her total score. Thus, if you have a total score of 600, and your undergraduate program placed equal emphasis on the two areas of psychology represented by the subscores, you would expect to have a scaled score of about 60 in each area. If, however, your subscores differ by more than a few points, you may take this as an indication that your lower score shows weakness, and you may wish to concentrate your review efforts on topics in that area.

It is important to realize that the conditions under which you tested yourself were not exactly the same as those you will encounter at a test center. It is impossible to predict how different test-taking conditions will affect test performance, and this is only one factor that may account for differences between your practice test scores and your actual test scores. By comparing your performance on this practice test with the performance of other GRE Psychology Test examinees, however, you will be able to determine your strengths and weaknesses and can then plan a program of study to prepare yourself for taking the GRE Psychology Test under standard conditions.

56

PSYCHOLOGY TEST

 

PRACTICE BOOK

 

 

DO NOT USE INK

Use only a pencil with soft, black lead (No. 2 or HB) to complete this answer sheet. Be sure to fill in completely the space that corresponds to your answer choice. Completely erase any errors or stray marks.

 

 

 

 

Enter your last name, Þrst name initial (given name), and

 

1. NAME middle initial if you have one.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Omit spaces, apostrophes, Jr., II., etc.

 

 

First

Middle

 

Last Name only (Family Name or Surname) - First 15 Letters

 

Name

 

 

Initial

Initial

 

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A

A

 

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

B

B

 

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

C

C

 

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

D

D

 

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

E

E

 

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

F

F

 

G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G

G

G

 

H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

H

H

 

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

 

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

 

K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K

K

K

 

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

 

M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

M

M

 

N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N

N

 

o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

O

O

 

P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P

P

P

 

q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Q

Q

 

R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

R

R

 

S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S

S

S

 

T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T

T

T

 

U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U

U

U

 

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V

V

 

W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W

W

W

 

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X

X

 

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y

Y

 

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

Z

Z

 

 

 

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

Ð

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YOUR NAME:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Print)

 

 

Last Name (Family or Surname)

 

 

First Name (Given)

M.I.

 

MAILING ADDRESS:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Print)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.O. Box or Street Address

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

City

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State or Province

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zip or Postal Code

 

 

CENTER:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

City

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State or Province

 

 

 

 

Country

 

 

 

 

Center Number

 

 

 

Room Number

57

SIGNATURE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS ¨

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- SUBJECT TEST

 

 

SIDE 1

 

 

.

 

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

side.

IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE INTENDED SPACE AS ILLUSTRATED HERE:

RESPONSE SPACES THAN YOU NEED. IF SO, PLEASE LEAVE THEM BLANK.

D E 39 A B C D E 77 A B C D

D E 40 A B C D E 78 A B C D

D E 41 A B C D E 79 A B C D

D E 42 A B C D E 80 A B C D

D E 43 A B C D E 81 A B C D

D E 44 A B C D E 82 A B C D

D E 45 A B C D E 83 A B C D

D E 46 A B C D E 84 A B C D

D E 47 A B C D E 85 A B C D

D E 48 A B C D E 86 A B C D

D E 49 A B C D E 87 A B C D

D E 50 A B C D E 88 A B C D

D E 51 A B C D E 89 A B C D

D E 52 A B C D E 90 A B C D

D E 53 A B C D E 91 A B C D

D E 54 A B C D E 92 A B C D

D E 55 A B C D E 93 A B C D

D E 56 A B C D E 94 A B C D

D E 57 A B C D E 95 A B C D

D E 58 A B C D E 96 A B C D

D E 59 A B C D E 97 A B C D

D E 60 A B C D E 98 A B C D

D E 61 A B C D E 99 A B C D

D E 62 A B C D E 100 A B C D

D E 63 A B C D E 101 A B C D

D E 64 A B C D E 102 A B C D

D E 65 A B C D E 103 A B C D

D E 66 A B C D E 104 A B C D

D E 67 A B C D E 105 A B C D

D E 68 A B C D E 106 A B C D

D E 69 A B C D E 107 A B C D

D E 70 A B C D E 108 A B C D

D E 71 A B C D E 109 A B C D

D E 72 A B C D E 110 A B C D

D E 73 A B C D E 111 A B C D

D E 74 A B C D E 112 A B C D

D E 75 A B C D E 113 A B C D

D E 76 A B C D E 114 A B C D

Item responses continued on reverse

EACH MARK

FIND MORE

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

B C

 

BE SURE

YOU MAY

1 A

2 A

3 A

4 A

5 A

6 A

7 A

8 A

9 A

10 A

11 A

12 A

13 A

14 A

15 A

16 A

17 A

18 A

19 A

20 A

21 A

22 A

23 A

24 A

25 A

26 A

27 A

28 A

29 A

30 A

31 A

32 A

33 A

34 A

35 A

36 A

37 A

38 A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. REGISTRATION

 

 

6. TITLE CODE

 

7. TEST NAME (on back cover of

 

 

 

3. DATE OF BIRTH

 

 

4. SOCIAL SECURITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

your test book)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBER

 

 

 

(on back cover of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(from your admission ticket)

 

your test book)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Month

Day

Year

 

 

 

 

(U.S.A. only)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FORM CODE (on back cover of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feb.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

your test book)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mar.

0

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May

2

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

2

2

 

8. TEST BOOK SERIAL NUMBER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June

3

3

3

3

 

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 

3

3

3

3

3

 

(number in upper right corner of front cover of

 

 

July

 

4

4

4

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

 

4

4

4

4

4

 

your test book)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aug.

 

5

5

5

 

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

 

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

 

5

5

5

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sept.

 

6

6

6

 

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

 

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

 

6

6

6

6

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oct.

 

7

7

7

 

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

 

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

 

7

7

7

7

7

 

SHADED AREA FOR ETS USE ONLY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nov.

 

8

8

8

 

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

 

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

 

8

8

8

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec.

 

9

9

9

 

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

 

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

 

9

9

9

9

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright ® 2007 by Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541

Q3117-06,07/1

00101-02954 • TF77E70

MH/wan07190

 

 

 

742862

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

®

 

 

 

 

All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

2

3

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIDE 2

SUBJECT TEST

COMPLETE THE

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT, THEN TURN ANSWER SHEET OVER TO SIDE 1.

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT

Please write the following statement below, DO NOT PRINT.

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DATE:

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FOR ETS USE ONLY

 

 

 

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