Food Protection Course Study Guide Details

Food safety is a critical part of the food service industry. Employees who handle food need to be properly trained in how to keep that food safe. The Food Protection Training Manual provides all the information necessary for employees to be able to do their jobs safely and effectively. The manual covers topics such as preventing foodborne illness, safe food handling practices, and proper sanitation procedures. It's an essential guide for anyone working in the food service industry.

In the table, there's some information concerning the food protection training manual. This site provides specifics of the form's size, finalization duration, and the blanks you can be needed to fill.

Form NameFood Protection Training Manual
Form Length97 pages
Fillable fields0
Avg. time to fill out24 min 15 sec
Other namesnyc food handlers final exam answers, nyc food handlers study guide pdf, nyc food protection final exam answers pdf, nyc food protection course final exam questions

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Introduction 1

Introduction to Food Safety 2

Receiving Foods 4

Storage of Food 8

Hazards to Our Health 11

Food Allergies 12

Microbiology of Foods 13

Common Foodborne Illnesses 18

Personal Hygiene 22

Food Preparation 24

Cooking, Hot Holding,

Cooling & Reheating 25

Cleaning and Sanitizing 31

HACCP Food Protection System 35

Pest Control 38

Plumbing 48

Operating a Temporary Food

Service Establishment 51

Required Postings 53

Reduced Oxygen Packaging 55

Local Laws 56

NYC Health Code Extracts 58

Food Defense Strategies 60

Trans Fat 62

Workplace Safety and Health 66

Form 198E Food Establishment

Inspection Report 69

Quizzes 75

Numbers to Remember 79

Work Sheets 83





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If you have questions or com- ments regarding this manual,

please call the Health Academy at

(917)492-6990. Other telephone numbers and addresses are listed below.

If you wish to contact:

OATH – HEALTH TRIBUNAL 66 John Street, 11th Floor

NY, NY 10038

(212) 361-1000



125 Worth Street, 9th & 10th Floors Box CN-59A, NY, NY 10013 Food Safety:

(212) 676-1600 Community Sanitation:

(212) 676-1651



42Broadway NY, NY 10004

(212) 487-4436

HEALTH ACADEMY 413 East 120 Street 2nd Floor

NY, NY 10035

(917) 492-6990


80 Maiden Lane NY, NY 10005

(212) 825-2141



(212) 788-4290


Published by the

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Division of Environmental Health

125 Worth Street

New York, NY 10013


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The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has the jurisdiction to regulate all matters affecting health in the city and to perform all those

functions and operations that relate to the health of the people of the city.

this certification may be needed at an establishment to have coverage dur- ing all shifts, vacations or illnesses.

The Food Protection Manual has been designed to assist participants of the course to better understand the principles of safe food handling. It serves as a reference for food ser- vice operators and it includes the necessary information to pass the final examination.

On-Line Food Protection Course

The Health Code

These are regulations that were formulated to allow the Department to effectively protect the health of the population. Among the rules embodied in the Health Code is Article 81 which regulates the oper- ations of food establishments for the purpose of preventing public health hazards.

Environmental Health Division

The Division of Environmental Health is the Commission within the Health Department that is concerned with public health and works to eliminate the incidence of injury and illness caused by environmental factors.

There are several Offices and Bureaus within this division. One of these is the Bureau of Food Safety and Community Sanitation that has the responsibility for con- ducting inspections of food service and food processing establishments. These inspections are performed by Public Health Sanitarians.

Anti-corruption Warning

All Sanitarians have Department of Health and Mental Hygiene badges and identification cards which they must display whenever it is requested of them.

It is illegal to offer a Sanitarian any bribe, gratuity or reward for official misconduct; this is a crime

that can result in fines, and /or imprisonment, and the revocation of permits. Also, Sanitarians are not authorized to conduct any monetary transactions on behalf of the Department.

Inspector General

This is an office that exists within the Health Department with the responsibility of investigating any incidence of alleged corrupt activity. Investigations may be conducted as a result of complaints by employees of the Department or members of the public.

Health Academy

The Health Academy is an office within the Division of Environmental Health. One of its responsibilities is to provide training and certification courses for individuals from the public as mandated by the Health Code.

The Food Protection Course is one of the courses taught here. The Food Protection Course is required by the Health Code for supervisors of food service establishments and non-retail food processing establishments. These individuals must take the course and pass an examination before a certifi- cate is issued to them. A person holding such a certificate must be on the premises and supervise all food preparation activities during all hours of operation. Several supervisors with

The Food Protection Course in English, Spanish and Chinese is now also available on-line. This course is designed for individuals with busy schedules to study at their con- venience. After the completion of the course, a final examination is scheduled at the Health Academy. Registration is done on-line. The link is:

Register for Health Academy

Classes On-Line

You may now register and pay online for courses offered at the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s Health Academy, includ- ing the Food Protection Course for restaurants. This new service allows you to avoid going to the Citywide Licensing Center to register for a course. You may also use the on-line service to pay for and request an appointment to replace your Food Protection Certificate.

How does it work?

Go to the registration web page,, select a course and date, pay the appropriate fee and receive confirmation.

You will be asked to provide some personal information before regis- tering. In most cases, you will be able to select from a list of course dates. If you don’t see a date that is convenient, check back as new course dates are added frequently.

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1.All food service establishments must have a current and valid permit issued by the NYC Health Department.


2.Health Inspectors have the right to inspect a food service or food processing establishment as long as it is in operation. Inspectors must be given access to all areas of establishment during an inspection. TRUE FALSE

3.Health Inspectors are authorized to collect permit fees and fines on behalf of the Department. TRUE FALSE

4.Health Inspectors must show their photo identification and badge to the person in charge of an establishment.


5.According to the NYC Health Code, who is required to have a Food Protection Certificate? ________________________________.


What are Potentially Hazardous

Foods (PHF)?

The United States has one of the safest food safety systems in the world, yet millions of Americans still get sick each year from eating contami- nated foods; hundreds of thousands are hospitalized; and several thou- sand die. This means that there is still tremendous room for improve- ment in food safety standards.

Most food-borne illnesses are caused by improper handling of food. The statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) show that some of the most common causes of foodborne illness are:

Sick food worker

Poor personal Hygiene/Bare hand contact

Improper holding temperatures

Improper cooling

Inadequate cooking and reheating

Cross contamination

Use of food from unknown source

What is Food-Borne Illness?

Any illness that is caused by food is called food-borne illness. A food- borne illness outbreak is defined as any incident involving two or more persons becoming ill with similar symptoms from the same source. Typically these illnesses are a direct result of contamination of food by harmful microorganisms, (commonly called germs) such as bacteria,



This expression refers to those foods



that provide suitable conditions for

viruses, parasites, fungi etc. Injury

rapid growth of microorganisms.

and illness caused by foreign objects,

These include foods that are high in

dangerous chemicals and/or allergens

protein like raw or cooked animal

in food is also considered a food-

products such as meats, poultry,

borne illness.

fish, shellfish (mollusks as well as

Who is at Risk?

crustaceans), milk and milk products

(cheese, butter milk, heavy cream etc.,),

We are all at risk of getting a food

plant protein such as tofu, and

borne illness; however, the effects are

starches such as cooked rice, cooked

more severe for certain categories of

pasta, cooked beans and cooked


vegetables like potatoes, cut melons,

Children whose immune system

cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes or

(human body’s defense system

mixtures of cut tomatoes, as well as

against diseases) is not fully devel-

oped yet.

raw seed sprouts and garlic in oil.

Elderly individuals because their

Exceptions: Those foods that have a

immune system is not robust any-

low water activity (.85 or less) or those

more and has weakened due to old

that are highly acidic with a pH of


4.6 or below. Air-cooled hard-boiled

Pregnant women where the threat

eggs with shells intact.

is both to the mother and the fetus.


Individuals with com-


promised immune sys-




Potentially Hazardous Foods

tems e.g., Patients with


AIDS, cancer or indi-



viduals who are diabet-



ics, etc.



People on medication



(antibiotics, immunosup-



pressant, etc.).



What is food?



Food is any edible sub-



stance, ice, beverage, or



ingredient intended for use



and used or sold for



human consumption.







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What is Ready-To- Eat Food?

necessary permits to operate. The use of





















Any food product that does not

foods prepared at home or in an unli-


















need additional heat treatment or

censed establishment is prohibited.























washing is called ready-to-eat food.














Extra care must be taken to ensure

The Temperature Danger Zone?









the safety of these foods.


Most microorganisms that cause
























Where do we purchase foods?

foodborne illness typically grow best




















between temperatures of 41°F and






All foods must be purchased from











140°F. This is commonly referred to











approved sources. These are manu-











as the temperature danger zone. One









facturers and suppliers who comply























with all the rules and regulations that

of the basic and simplest ways to keep









food safe is by keeping it out of the









pertain to the production of their








temperature danger zone.









product, including having the

























































How do we store potentially

































hazardous foods?

















All foods must be kept free from

















adulteration, spoilage, filth or

















other contamination in order to be

















suitable for human consumption.

















Potentially hazardous foods are of




























Cold temperature

particular concern because they























reading calibration

provide the conditions suitable for



























the growth of microorganisms.
















These foods must be kept either hot or

Also, it is available within the range

in 50/50 solution of ice and water

cold to prevent microorganisms from

of 0° to 220°F making it ideal for

or boiling water, and hitting the

growing. Hot means 140°F or above

measuring the required tempera-

“reset” button will automatically

and cold means 41°F or below. The

tures in a food establishment.

calibrate the thermometer. Bi-metallic

temperature range between 41°F and


Another thermometer in use is

stem thermometers may be calibrated

140°F is known as the temperature

the thermocouple which is very accu-

by two methods:

danger zone. It is within this range

rate but fairly expensive. Lastly, there is

Boiling-Point Method

that microorganisms are comfortable

a thermometer called thermistor,

Ice-Point method

and will grow rapidly. At 41°F and

which has a digital read out and is











below, the temperature is cold

commonly called "digital thermometer."

Boiling-Point Method

enough to retard or slow down the


These thermometers are used by

Bring water to a boil.

growth of microorganisms, while

inserting the probe into the thickest

Place the thermometer probe (stem)

above 140°F most of the microor-

part or the geometric center of the

into the boiling water. Make sure

ganisms which cause foodborne ill-

food item being measured. The stem

that the thermometer probe does

ness begin to die.

thermometer must remain in the food

not touch the bottom or sides of



until the indicator stops moving before

the pan. Wait until the indicator


stops moving, then record the

the reading is taken and must be re-



The only safe way to determine


calibrated periodically to assure accuracy.

that potentially hazardous foods are

If the temperature is 212°F, do






kept out of the temperature danger









nothing, the thermometer is accurate.








zone is by the use of thermometers.


Thermometers must be calibrated

(This is the temperature of boiling

There are several different types of

to ensure their accuracy. For thermo-

water at sea level.)

thermometers. The bi-metallic stem is

couple thermometers, follow the

If the temperature is not 212°F,

the most popular type. It is fairly

instructions provided by the manu-

rotate the hex-adjusting nut using

inexpensive, easy to use, accurate to

facturer. For some thermistor ther-

a wrench or other tool until the

+ or – 2°F and easy to re-calibrate.

mometers, placing the thermometer

indicator is at 212°F.

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Ice-Point Method

Fill a container with ice and water to

make a 50/50 ice water slush.

Stir the slush.


Place the thermometer probe so

that it is completely submerged in

the ice-water slush, taking care

not to touch the sides or the bot-

tom. Wait until the indicator nee-

dle stops moving, then record the


If the temperature is 32°F, do

nothing, the thermometer is

accurate. (A 50/50 ice water slush

will always have a temperature of

32°F at sea-level.) If the tempear-

ture is not 32°F, rotate the hex-

adjusting nut until the indicator

needle is at 32°F.

How to use a Thermometer

The following describes the proper method of using thermometers:

Sanitize the probe by the use of

alcohol wipes. This is a fairly safe

and common practice. Other

methods such as immersion in

water with a temperature of 170°F

for 30 seconds or in a chemical

sanitizing solution of 50 PPM for

at least one minute, or swabbing

with a chlorine sanitizing solution

of 100 PPM are also acceptable.

Measure the internal product

temperature by inserting the probe

into the thickest part or the center

of the product. It is recommend-

ed that the temperature readings

be taken at several points.

Whenever using a bi-metallic

thermometer, ensure that the

entire sensing portion – from the

tip of the probe to the indenta-

tion on the stem, is inserted in to

the food product.

The first opportunity one has to ensure that food is safe is at the point of receiving. At this point care

must be taken to ensure that all products come from approved sources and/or reliable and rep- utable suppliers. Incoming supplies must be received at a time when it is convenient to inspect them and place them into storage promptly. There are various qualities and con- ditions one should look for in dif- ferent food items.


Incoming supplies of beef can be received either fresh or frozen. Fresh beef should be at 41°F or below while frozen beef should be at 0°F or below. Beef should be bright to dark red in color with no objection- able odor. To ensure that the supply is from an approved source, look for the United States Department of Agriculture inspection stamp. This can be found on the sides of the beef carcass or on the box when receiving portions of the carcass. This inspection is mandatory and the stamp indicates that the meat is sanitary, wholesome and fit for human consumption. Also found may be a grade stamp which attests to the quality of the meat and will certainly have an impact on its price. The inspection stamp is the more important of the two stamps.


Lamb, like beef, may have an inspection stamp as well as a grade stamp. When fresh, it is light red in color and has no objectionable odor and the flesh is firm and elastic. Fresh lamb is received at 41°F and frozen at or below 0°F. (See stamps below)


Pork is also subject to USDA inspection. The flesh is light colored while the fat is white. A good way to check for spoilage is to insert a knife into the flesh all the way to the bone and check the blade for any off odors. (See stamps below)

Chicken and Poultry

Chicken and poultry are subject to USDA inspection which must be verified by the inspection stamp. (See stamps below) These must be received either fresh at 41°F and below or frozen at 0°F or less, as they are naturally contaminated with the micro-organism Salmonella which must be kept under control.

Wait for roughly 15 seconds or

until the reading is steady before

recording it.

Clean and sanitize the thermometer

for later use.


USDA Poultry

Inspection Stamp

Inspection Stamp


USDA Poultry


Grade Stamp

Grade Stamp





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Fresh fish

There is no inspection for fresh fish other than what can be done by sight and touch and one’s sense of smell. This makes it more impor- tant to purchase supplies from rep- utable and reliable suppliers. Fresh fish must be received cold and on ice, 41°F or less, with no objection- able odor. The eyes must be clear and bulging, the gills bright red and the flesh firm and elastic. Fish that is spoiling will have a fishy odor; the eyes cloudy, red rimmed and sunken; the gills grey or greenish; the flesh will pit on pressure and can easily be pulled away from the bones; the scales are loose.

Smoked fish

Smoked fish provide ideal condi- tions for the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores if left at room temperature. Therefore, upon receipt, all smoked fish must be stored at 38°F or below.

It is important to adhere to the temperature requirements stated on the label.


Shellfish is the term used to describe clams, mussels, and oysters. These belong to the family of mol- lusks. They are filter feeders, that is, they absorb water from their envi- ronment, filter out whatever nutri- ents are there and then expel the water. Feeding in this manner causes them to absorb and accumulate harmful microorganisms from pollut- ed waters. Since the whole shellfish is eaten either raw or partially cooked, it is critical to ensure that they are harvested from safe waters. It is important to buy shellfish from reputable suppliers who can provide the shipper’s tags which identify the source of the shellfish. These tags supply the following information:

The name of the product

The name of the original shipper

The address of the original shipper

The interstate certificate number of the original shipper

The location of the shellfish har- vesting area.

When purchasing small amounts from a retailer, a tag must be pro- vided. This is a split-lot tag which

has all the information that is on the original tag.

The shellfish tag is required to be kept together with the product, then whenever the product is used up, it must be kept for 90 days in order of delivery. The virus Hepatitis A is associated with shellfish.

Check if the shellfish is alive. An opened shell may be an indication of dead shellfish. Gently tap on the shell, if the shell closes then it is alive otherwise it’s dead and should be discarded. Both alive as well as shucked shellfish (shellfish that has been removed from its shell) must only be accepted if delivered at a temperature of 41°F or below. Following conditions would auto- matically be grounds for rejection:

Slimy, sticky or dry texture

Strong fishy odor

Broken shells

Other Shellfish

Lobsters, crabs and shrimps belong to the family of crustaceans. Fresh lobsters and crabs must be alive at the time of delivery. As with other seafood, a strong fishy odor is an indication of spoilage. The shell of the shrimp must be intact and firm- ly attached. All processed crustacean must be delivered at 41°F or below.

Split Lot Tag

Shellfish Tag


It is strongly recommended that the invoices be kept with the tags to aid in tracing the lot’s history.


Eggs produced outside of New York State are inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture while those produced within the State are inspected by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. In either case, inspected eggs will be identified by a stamp on the carton. Eggs have long been

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associated with the micro-organism Salmonella enteritidis. This bacteri- um has been found on the inside of the egg, so external washing does not make eggs safe.

Eggs should be bought from sup- pliers who deliver them in refriger- ated trucks and upon receipt, these eggs must be kept refrigerated at an ambient temperature of 45°F until they are used.

pasteurized milk and milk products must not exceed 45 days from date of ultra pasteurization.

Upon receipt, these products must be checked to ensure that they are well within the expiration period and that they are at 41°F or below. This temperature must be main- tained until the product is used up.

watermelons, cantaloupes, honey dews and all varieties of melons, oranges, etc. Only potable running water should be used to thoroughly wash these produce, and the use of produce scrubbing brushes is strongly recommended.

Egg Cartons Stamps

Pasteurized Eggs

Pasteurization is a method of heating foods to destroy harmful microorganisms. Pasteurized eggs come in many forms: intact shell eggs, liquid eggs, frozen eggs, or in pow- dered form. Even though these have been pasteurized, they still require refrigeration to slow down growth of spoilage microorganisms to extend the shelf life. Only the powdered pasteurized eggs may be held at room temperature.

Milk and Milk Products

Only accept Grade A pasteurized milk and milk products. Harmful pathogens such as Listeria monocy- togenes, E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. are commonly asso- ciated with un-pasteurized milk.

The expiration date on pasteur- ized milk and milk products must not exceed nine calendar days from date of pasteurization, while ultra




Canned Goods





It is a simple task to inspect




canned goods and remove from cir-




culation those cans that can cause

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables


foodborne illness. The first step is





The acceptable condition of fruits

to ensure that home canned foods

are not used in a food service estab-

and vegetables vary from one item



lishment. All canned foods must be

to another. As a general rule of thumb,

commercially processed. A good can

only accept those that do not show

is free from rust and dents, properly

any signs of spoilage. Reject any



sealed and labeled and slightly con-

produce that shows signs of decay,



cave at both ends.


mold, mushiness, discoloration,







wilting, and bad odors.


A can with a dent on any of the

A recent study done by the center



three seams (top, bottom or side)

for Science in the Public Interest



must be removed from circulation.

(CSPI) found that contaminated fruits

The same requirement is true for

and vegetables are causing more food-

severely rusted, severely dented, leak-

borne illness among Americans than

ing and cans with swollen ends. Bad

raw chicken and eggs combined.



cans may be rejected at delivery or seg-

Most fresh produce may become



regated and clearly labeled for return

contaminated with Salmonella and



to the supplier.


E.coli 0157:H7 due to the







use of manure fertilizer











(more common in South






and Central America, which






is a major source of fresh






produce to the United












Fresh produce must be






thoroughly washed prior to






being served raw. This






includes all kinds of fruits






and vegetables including



severe dents

slight rust

produce that has a hard





rind that is typically not











consumed, for example,







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Modified Atmosphere

Packaged Foods

Various food items are packaged under special conditions to prolong their shelf life. These conditions include the following:

Food is placed in a package and all the air is withdrawn: vacuum packaging.

Food is placed in a package, all the air is withdrawn and gases are added to preserve the contents – modified atmosphere packaging.

Food is placed in a package, all the air is withdrawn and the food

is cooked in the package: sous vide packaging.

Because of the absence of air, foods packaged in this manner provide ideal conditions for the growth of the clostridium botulinum micro-organism, unless they are refrigerated at tem- peratures recommended by the manufacturer.

These products must be provided by approved sources and care taken to preserve the packaging during handling and when taking the tem- perature.

Food establishments interested in making “modified atmosphere pack- aged foods” must first obtain per- mission from NYC DOHMH.

For more information , please see Page 54.

Dry Foods

Dry foods such as grains, peas,

beans, flour and sugar are to be dry at the time of receiving. Moisture will cause growth of molds and the deterioration of these products. Broken and defective packages will indicate contamination; as will the evidence of rodent teeth marks.

Whenever these products are removed from their original con- tainers, they must be stored in tightly covered, rodent-proof containers with proper labels.

Refrigerated and Frozen

Processed Foods

For convenience as well as cutting down on costs, there has been a greater shift towards using prepared pre- packaged refrigerated or frozen foods. These routinely include deli and luncheon meats, refrigerated or frozen entrees, etc. Care should be taken when receiving these products to ensure quality as well as safety. Following are some guidelines:

Ensure that refrigerated foods are delivered at 41°F or below. (Except, as noted previously, smoked fish must be received at 38° F or lower.)

Ensure that frozen foods are delivered at 0°F or lower.

All packaging must be intact.

Any frozen food packaging that shows signs of thawing and refreezing should be rejected. Signs include liquid or frozen liquids on the outside packaging, formation of ice crystals on the packaging or on the product, and water stains.


1.The term "potentially hazardous food" refers to foods which do not support rapid growth of microorganisms. TRUE FALSE

2.Home canned food products are allowed in commercial food establishments. TRUE FALSE

3.The Temperature Danger Zone is between 41°F and 140°F.


4.Within the Temperature Danger Zone, most harmful microorganisms reproduce rapidly. TRUE FALSE

5.Shellfish tags must be filed in order of delivery date and kept for a period of _______ days.

6.Fresh shell eggs must be refrigerated at an ambient temperature of: ______°F.

7.Foods in Modified Atmosphere Packages provide ideal conditions for the growth of: _______

8.The recommended range of bi-metallic stem thermometer is: _______

9.Meat inspected by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture must have a/an:

____________ stamp.

10.Chicken and other poultry are most likely to be contaminated with: _______

11.Smoked fish provide ideal conditions for the growth of Botulinum spores. Therefore, this product must be stored at: ______°F

12.Safe temperatures for holding potentially hazardous foods are: ______°F or below and ______°F or above

13.What are the four types of defective canned products that must be removed from circulation? ______, ______, _____, _____

14.Which of the following is an indication that fish is not fresh?:

clear eyes fishy odor firm flesh

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fter receiving the foods proper

Storage Containers

Aly, they must be immediately

It is always best to store food in

their original packaging; however,

moved to appropriate storage areas.

The most common types of food

when it is removed to another con-

storage include:

tainer, take extra care to avoid cont-

Refrigeration storage

amination. Only use food containers

that are clean, non-absorbent and

Freezer storage

are made from food-grade material

Dry storage

intended for such use. Containers

Storage in Ice

made from metal may react with


We will discuss each of these

certain type of high acid foods such

individually; however, certain

as sauerkraut, citrus juices, tomato

aspects are common for all types of

sauce, etc. Plastic food-grade con-

storage and are described below.

tainers are the best choice for these


types of foods. Containers made of

copper, brass, tin and galvanized metal

An important aspect of food stor-

should not be used. The use of such

age is to be able to use food products

products is prohibited.

before their “use-by” or expiration



date. In this regard, stock rotation is

Re-using cardboard containers to

very important. The common sense

store cooked foods is also a source

approach of First in First out (FIFO)

of contamination. Lining containers

method of stock rotation prevents

with newspapers, menus or other

waste of food products and ensures

publication before placing foods is

quality. The first step in implement-

also prohibited as chemical dyes from

ing the FIFO method of stock rota-

these can easily leach into foods.

tion is to date products. Marking the

Storage Areas

products with a date allows food

Foods should only be stored in

workers to know which product was

designated areas. Storing foods in

received first. This way, the older stock

passageways, rest rooms, garbage

is moved to the front, and the newly

areas, utility rooms, etc. would sub-

received stock is placed in the back.

ject these to contamination. Raw




foods must always be stored

Cross Contamination


below and away from cooked

When harmful microorganisms are


foods to avoid cross contami-

transferred from one food item to



another, typically, from raw foods to


Refrigerated Storage

cooked or ready to eat foods, it is



This type of storage is typi-

termed cross contamination. This



cally used for holding potential-

expression also applies in any situa-


tion where contamination from one


ly hazardous foods as well as

object crosses over to another. Cross


perishable foods for short peri-

contamination may also occur between


ods of time—a few hours to a

two raw products, for instance,


few days.

poultry juices falling on raw beef


An adequate number of effi-

will contaminate it with Salmonella,



cient refrigerated units are

which is typically only associated



required to store potentially

with poultry and raw eggs.







hazardous cold foods. By keeping cold foods cold, the microorganisms that are found naturally on these foods are kept to a minimum. Cold

temperature does not kill microor- ganisms, however, it slows down their growth.

Pre-packaged cold foods must be stored at temperatures recommended by the manufacturer. This is especially important when dealing with vacuum packed foods, modified atmosphere packages and sous vide foods. Smoked fish is required by the Health Code to be stored at 38°F or below.

Fresh meat, poultry and other potentially hazardous foods must be stored at 41°F or below, while frozen foods must be stored at 0°F or below. For foods to be maintained at these temperatures, refrigerators and freezers must be operating at tem- peratures lower than 41°F and 0°F., respectively. Thermometers placed in the warmest part of a refrigerated unit are necessary to monitor the temperature of each unit.

The rule of storage, First In First Out (FIFO) ensures that older deliveries are used up before newer ones. In practicing FIFO, the very first step would be to date all prod- ucts as they are received. The next step is to store the newer products behind the older ones.

The following rules are important in making sure that foods are safe during refrigerated storage:

Store cooked foods above raw foods to avoid cross-contamina- tion.

Keep cooked food items covered unless they are in the process of cooling, in which case they must be covered after being cooled to 41°F.

Avoid placing large pots of hot foods in a refrigerator. This will cause the temperature of the refrigerator to rise and other foods will be out of temperature.



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Foods stored at least six

inches above the floor

Store foods away from dripping condensate , at least six inches above the floor and with enough space between items to encourage air circulation.

Freezer Storage

Freezing is an excellent method

for prolonging the shelf life of foods. By keeping foods frozen solid, the bacterial growth is minimal at best. However, if frozen foods are thawed and then refrozen, then harmful bacteria can reproduce to dangerous levels when thawed for the second time. In addition to that, the quality of the food is also affected. Never re- freeze thawed foods, instead use them immediately. Keep the following rules in mind for freezer storage:

Use First In First Out method of stock rotation.

All frozen foods should be frozen solid with temperature at 0°F or lower.

Always use clean containers that are clearly labeled and marked, and have proper and secure lids.

Allow adequate spacing between food containers to allow for proper air circulation.

Never use the freezer for cooling hot foods.

*Tip: When receiving multiple items, always store the frozen foods first, then foods that are to be refrig- erated, and finally the non perishable dry goods.

Dry Storage

Proper storage of dry foods such as cereals, flour, rice, starches, spices,

canned goods, packaged foods and vegetables that do not require refrig- eration ensures that these foods will still be usable when needed. Adequate storage space as well as low humidity (50% or less), and low temperatures (70 °F or less) are strongly recom- mended. In addition to the above, avoid sunlight as it may affect the quality of some foods. Following are some of the guidelines:

Use First In First Out method of stock rotation.

Keep foods at least 6 inches off the floor. This allows for proper cleaning and to detect vermin activity.

Keep foods in containers with tightly fitted lids.

Keep dry storage areas well light- ed and ventilated.

Install shades on windows to pre- vent exposure from sunlight.

Do not store foods under over- head water lines that may drip due to leaks or condensation.

Do not store garbage in dry food storage areas.

Make sure that dry storage area is vermin proof by sealing walls and baseboards and by repairing holes and other openings.

*Safety Tip: Storage of harmful chemicals in the food storage areas can create hazardous situations and hence is prohibited by law. All chemi- cals must be labeled properly and used in accordance to the instructions on the label. Pesticide use is prohibit- ed unless used by a licensed pest con- trol officer.

Storage in Ice

Whenever food items are to be stored in ice, care must be taken to ensure that water from the melted ice is constantly being drained so that the food remains on ice and not immersed in iced water.

Furthermore, it is improper to store food in ice machines or ice that will be later used for human consumption.


Food should be stored at least six inches off the floor, away from walls and dripping pipes.

Keep all food, bulk or otherwise, covered and safe from contamina- tion.

Check food daily and throw away any spoiled or contaminated food.

Store cleaning, disinfecting, and other chemicals away from foods, clearly marked and in their original containers.

Keep food refrigerated at a tem- perature of 41°F or below.

Monitor temperatures regularly with a thermometer placed in the warmest part of the refrigerator.

Keep all cooling compartments closed except when you are using them.

Store food in a refrigerator in such a way that the air inside can circulate freely.

Keep all refrigerated foods covered, and use up stored leftovers quickly.

When dishes and utensils are sparkling clean, keep them that way by proper storage. Keep all cups and glasses inverted.

Cakes, doughnuts and fruit pies may be kept inside a covered dis- play area.

The only goods that should be left on the counter uncovered are those which are individually wrapped and not potentially hazardous.

Do not set dirty dishes, pots, car- tons or boxes on food tables.

Whenever products are removed from their original containers, store them in tightly covered, rodent proof containers with labels.

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Refrigerator and Freezer Storage Chart

Since product dates aren’t a guide for safe use of a product, consult this chart and follow these tips.

These short but safe time limits will help keep refrigerated food 41° F (5°C) from spoiling or becoming dangerous.

Purchase the product before “sell-by” or expiration dates.

Follow handling recommendations on product.

Keep meat and poultry in its package until just before using.

If freezing meat and poultry in its original package longer than 2 months, overwrap these packages with airtight heavy-duty foil, plastic wrap, or freezer paper, or place the package inside a plastic bag.

Because freezing 0° F (-18° C) keeps food safe indefinitely, the following recommended storage times are for quality only.


















Soups & Stews



Fresh, in shell

4 to 5 weeks

Don’t freeze

Vegetable or meat-added



Raw yolks, whites

2 to 4 days

1 year

& mixtures of them

3 to 4 days

2 to 3 months

Hard cooked

1 week

Don’t freeze well






Bacon & Sausage



Liquid pasteurized eggs












or egg substitutes,





7 days

1 month








3 days

Don’t freeze

Sausage, raw from pork,







10 days

1 year

beef, chicken or turkey

1 to 2 days

1 to 2 months




Mayonnaise, commercial




Smoked breakfast links,









Refrigerate after opening

2 months

Don’t freeze


7 days

1 to 2 months








Summer sausage labeled



TV Dinners, Frozen Casseroles



“Keep Refrigerated,”



Keep frozen until ready to heat

3 to 4 months


3 months

1 to 2 months






3 weeks

1 to 2 months

Deli & Vacuum-Packed Products









3 to 5 days

Don’t freeze well

Fresh Meat (Beef, Veal, Lamb, & Pork)


egg, chicken, tuna, ham,





3 to 5 days

6 to 12 months

macaroni salads





3 to 5 days

4 to 6 months

Pre-stuffed pork & lamb





3 to 5 days

4 to 12 months

chops, chicken breasts




Variety meats (tongue,



stuffed w/dressing

1 day

Don’t freeze well

kidneys, liver, heart,



Store-cooked convenience





1 to 2 days

3 to 4 months


3 to 4 days

Don’t freeze well









Commercial brand




Meat Leftovers







Cooked meat & meat dishes

3 to 4 days

2 to 3 months

dinners with USDA seal,




Gravy & meat broth

1 to 2 days

2 to 3 months


2 weeks

Don’t freeze well






Fresh Poultry









Raw Hamburger, Ground & Stew Meat







Chicken or turkey, whole

1 to 2 days

1 year

Hamburger & stew meats

1 to 2 days

3 to 4 months

Chicken or turkey, parts

1 to 2 days

9 months

Ground turkey, veal, pork,








1 to 2 days

3 to 4 months


1 to 2 days

3 to 4 months








Cooked Poultry, Leftover



Ham, Corned Beef









Fried chicken

3 to 4 days

4 months

Corned beef in pouch







Cooked poultry dishes

3 to 4 days

4 to 6 months

with pickling juices

5 to 7 days

Drained, 1 month

Pieces, plain

3 to 4 days

4 months

Ham, canned, labeled







Pieces covered with broth,



“Keep Refrigerated,”










1 to 2 days

6 months


6 to 9 months

Don’t freeze

Chicken nuggets, patties

1 to 2 days

1 to 3 months


3 to 5 days

1 to 2 months




Ham, fully cooked, whole

7 days

1 to 2 months






Fish & Shellfish



Ham, fully cooked, half

3 to 5 days

1 to 2 months






Ham, fully cooked, slices

3 to 4 days

1 to 2 months

Lean fish

1 to 2 days

6 months








Fatty fish

1 to 2 days

2 to 3 months

Hot Dogs & Lunch Meats


(in freezer wrap)

Cooked fish

3 to 4 days

4 to 6 months

Hot dogs,




Smoked fish

14 days

2 months

opened package

1 week

1 to 2 months

Fresh shrimp, scallops,



unopened package

2 weeks

1 to 2 months

crawfish, squid

1 to 2 days

3 to 6 months

Lunch meats,




Canned seafood

after opening

out of can

opened package

3 to 5 days

1 to 2 months

Pantry, 5 years

3 to 4 days

2 months

unopened package

2 weeks

1 to 2 months













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1.The acronym FIFO means: ___________________

2.The first step in implementing FIFO is to rotate the stock.


3.The New York City Health code requires that all food items must be stored at least _______ off the floor.

4.In order to prevent cross-contamination, raw foods in a refrigerator must be stored _______ cooked foods.

5.Cold temperatures slow down the growth of microorganisms.


6.Food for storage must be kept covered and/or stored in vermin-proof containers. TRUE FALSE

7.Ice intended for human consumption can be used for storing cans and bottles. TRUE FALSE

8.When foods are stored directly in ice, the water from that ice must be drained constantly. TRUE FALSE


Sulfites are used to maintain the color and freshness of cut fruits and vegetables.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used to enhance the flavor of foods.

Excessive use of sulfites and MSG have both resulted in serious allergic reaction among sensitive individuals.

MSG is permitted in a food service establishment as long as it is dis- closed on the menu, however, the use of sulfites is prohibited. Certain foods may contain sulfites when they are brought in but none may be added in a food service establishment.

Toxic metals

Food borne illnesses are caused

by the presence of foreign objects, chemicals and living organ- isms in our foods. These can be described as hazards to our health.

Physical Hazards

The presence of a foreign object in food that can cause an injury or an illness is called a Physical Hazard. The common cause of a physical hazard is accidental and/or due to improper food handling practices by food workers. Food workers must be trained to handle foods safely so as not to contaminate foods. Food workers should not wear jewelry or any other personal effects that may accidentally fall into food items.

Some common examples include:

Tiny pebbles that are sometimes found in rice, beans, and peas.

Fragments of glass—from a bro- ken glass, from scooping ice with the glass, from broken light bulb without protective shields, etc.

Short, un-frilled toothpicks used to hold a sandwich together.


Metal shavings from a worn can opener

Scouring pad (steel wool) wire

Pieces of jewelry

Any food item with a physical hazard must be discarded immediately.

Chemical hazards

A chemical hazard may be in a

food item either accidentally, delib- erately or naturally.

A chemical may be introduced to a food accidentally by the careless use of insecticides, storing of clean- ing and other chemicals next to open foods and the storage of acidic foods in metal containers.

These are the more common

examples and may be avoided by:

Using an experienced, licenced exterminator.

Storing cleaning and other chemi- cals, including personal medica- tion, away from foods, preferably in a locked cabinet.

Storing acidic foods in containers made of food-grade plastic.

A chemical may be introduced into a food item deliberately to enhance its taste or appearance without realizing that it may cause consumers to become ill.

Utensils made from lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony and cadmium are not permitted for use with food products. These can cause toxic- metal poisoning from the leaching of these chemicals into the food.

Similarly, containers previously designed to hold cleaning agents and other chemicals should never be used for food storage. Always ensure that food storage containers are made from food-grade materials.

Biological Hazards

Biological hazards occur when disease-causing microorganisms such as Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites and Fungi end up contaminating our food supply. In addition to that, toxins found naturally in certain foods can also cause food borne illness.

Mushrooms are both poisonous and non-poisonous and they are dif- ficult to tell apart. To be certain that a safe variety is being used, they must be purchased from a reli- able commercial source.

Toxins in certain fish can also be a serious problem. Some fish have natural toxins, others accumulate toxins from their food, while yet

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others develop toxins during stor- age. Puffer fish may contain tetrodotoxin and/or saxitoxin which can cause severe illness and death. These are central nervous system toxins and according to FDA, are 1,200 times more deadly than cyanide.

Certain predatory fish, such as the barracuda, feed on smaller fish which in turn feed on algae. Algae, during certain seasons and in certain

waters may be toxic. This toxicity accumulates in the smaller fish and then in the fish that eat the smaller fish. In this manner the ciguatoxin, which is not destroyed by cooking, may accumulate in fish and this leads to the illness Ciguatera.

Scombroid poisoning is a food borne illness caused by the con- sumption of marine fish from the Scombridae family: tuna, mackerel, and a few non-Scombroidae relatives,

such as bluefish, dolphin and amberjacks. These fish have high levels of histidine in their flesh and during decomposition, the histidine is converted into histamine which causes consumers to suffer an aller- gic-like reaction. The symptoms of this illness, among other things, mimic a heart attack. Histamine is not destroyed by cooking.


MSG – added to enhance the flavor of food.

An allergy is a reaction to a food or ingredient that the body

mistakenly believes to be harmful. Millions of Americans suffer from allergic reactions to food each year. Most of these food allergies are mild in nature, but some food allergies can cause severe reactions, and may even be life-threatening.

There is no cure for food allergies. Avoidance of food allergens and early recognition and management of allergic food reactions are crucial to prevent serious health conse- quences.

Common Symptoms

Following are some of the com- mon symptoms:





Swelling of face and eyes


Loss of consciousness due to air way obstruction


Eight Most Common Allergens

Although an individual could be allergic to any food product, such as

fruits, vegetables, and meats, however, the following eight foods account for

90% of all food-allergic reactions:





Tree Nuts



Shell Fish

Here’s an easy way to remember them:

Food Problems Will Send The EMS

These eight foods as well as any food that contains proteins from one or more of these foods are called “major food allergens” by law.

Additives that Trigger Allergies

In addition to the foods listed above, some common additives of foods can also trigger an allergic reaction. Full disclosure of these on the menu is necessary. Following are some of the common food additives used in the food industry:

Nitrites*—added in meats for redness.

Sulfites*—added to dried and preserved fruits and vegetables for freshness.

*The use of Nitrites and Sulfites in the retail food industry is not permitted.

Hidden Ingredients

Sometimes a dish may contain a very insignificant amount of common allergens and only the chef may be aware of it. Never guess! Always ensure that a dish is 100% free of allergens. Review the ingredients list for every dish requested by the customers and check labels on packaged and ready- to-eat food products.

Customer Safety

In order to protect the customers, it is important that there is full dis- closure of the use of these eight common allergens to the customers. This can be done in the following manner:

By describing details of menu items.

When uncertain about any ingredient, inform the customer immediately.

Ensure that food has no contact with ingredients to which customer is allergic. Even the smallest amount of allergen can cause a serious reaction.

Wash hands thoroughly and use new sanitary gloves before



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preparing dishes for guests with food allergy.

Clean and sanitize all equipment, cooking and eating utensils, and food contact surfaces with hot soapy water before preparing allergen-free foods.

Never use any equipment or utensils previously used to cook other foods.

Never cook with oils that were used to prepare other foods. Heat does not destroy allergens.

Look out for splashes and acci- dental spills.

It is important to remember that removing allergens from a finished dish, such as nuts, shellfish etc, does not make the dish safe.

If a guest has an allergic reaction, call 911 immediately. To prevent future mistakes, find out what went wrong.


The presence of the following in food constitutes a physical hazard:

1.Pieces of glass TRUE FALSE

2.Metal shavings TRUE FALSE

3.Piece of wood TRUE FALSE

4.Pebbles and stones TRUE FALSE


6.Toothpick TRUE FALSE

The presence of the following in the food constitutes a chemical hazard:

7.Ciguatoxin TRUE FALSE

8.Prescription medicines TRUE FALSE

9.Roach spray TRUE FALSE


11.False fingernails TRUE FALSE

12.Hair dye TRUE FALSE

13.Sulfites can be used in food preparation as long as their use is disclosed on the menu. TRUE FALSE

14.Some wild mushrooms can be very toxic; therefore mushrooms must always be purchased from a reliable and trustworthy commercial source.


15.Use of MSG ( Monsodium Glutamate) in foods is a very dangerous practice and is not allowed under any circumstances. TRUE FALSE


Spirilla are spiral or comma shaped.

In order to understand the reasons behind food sanitation practices, it is necessary to know a few facts about the microorganisms which cause food

spoilage and foodborne disease.


Bacteria, commonly called germs, are extremely small, plant-like organisms which must be viewed through a microscope in order to be seen. If 25,000 bacteria are placed in a line, that line would only be one inch long; one million could fit on the head of a pin. Like any living thing, bacteria require food, moisture and the proper temperature for growth. Most of them need air (these are called aerobes), but some can survive only in the absence of air (these are called anaerobes) and some can grow with or without air (these are called facultative).

Bacteria are found everywhere on the earth, in the air and in water. Soil abounds with bacteria which grow on dead organic matter.

Shapes of Bacteria

One method of classifying bacteria is by their shape. All bacteria can be assigned to one of the following cat- egories:

Cocci are round or spherical in shape. While they are able to live alone, they often exist in groups. Single chains are called streptococci. Those which form a grape-like cluster are called staphylococci while those that exist in pairs are called diplococci.

Bacilli are rod shaped. Some of these also congregate in the single chain form and are called strepto- bacilli.


Some bacteria are able to protect themselves under adverse conditions by forming a protective shell or wall around themselves; in this form they are in the non-vegetative stage and are called spores. These bacterial spores can be likened to the seeds of a plant which are also resistant to adverse conditions.

During the spore stage bacteria do not reproduce or multiply. As soon as these spores find themselves under proper conditions of warmth, moisture and air requirement, they resume their normal vegetative stage and their growth . Since spores are designed to withstand rigorous con- ditions, they are difficult to destroy by normal methods. Much higher killing temperatures and longer time periods are required. Fortunately,

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there are only a relatively few path-


neither helpful nor harmful to

ogenic or disease causing bacteria


humans. Of the hundreds of

which are spore-formers. Tetanus,


thousands of strains of bacteria,

anthrax and botulism are diseases


most fall in this category.

caused by spore-formers.



It must be realized that many










Bacterial Reproduction



bacteria are essential in the bal-



ance of nature thus the destruc-


Bacteria reproduce by splitting in




tion of all bacteria in the world

two; this is called binary fission. For



would be catastrophic. Our main

this reason, their numbers are always



objective is public health protec-

doubling: one bacterium generates two;



tion through the control and

each of these generates another two



destruction of pathogenic (disease

resulting in a total of four and the



causing) bacteria and those that

four become eight and this goes on



cause food spoilage.

and on.









The time it takes for bacteria to


Bacterial Growth

double (generation time) is roughly


Bacteria require certain conditions

twenty to thirty minutes under


in order to multiply. They need

favorable conditions.



moisture, warmth, nutrients and time.










It is rapid bacterial multiplication

Types of Bacteria According to


that often causes problems with

Their Effect on Humans



regard to the safety of a food prod-


Types of bacteria classified



uct. Under ideal conditions rapid

according to their effect on us are:


growth can mean that one organism

Harmful or disease-causing bac-


can become two in as little as


20–30 minutes.


teria are known as pathogenic








bacteria or pathogens. They cause


The Bacterial Growth Curve table


various diseases in humans,






assumes that a certain food initially


animals and plants.






contains 1,000 organisms. The ideal










Undesirable bacteria which cause


rapid growth takes place during the


decomposition of food are often


log phase and all bacteria will reach


referred to as spoilage bacteria.




this rapid part of their growth if










Beneficial bacteria are used in


given the correct conditions.


the production of various foods


Bacteria begin their growth cycle by


including cultured milk, yogurt,


adjusting to any new environment or


cheese and sauerkraut.






condition by being in a resting or










Benign bacteria, as far as we



lag phase. Stationary and death


know at the present time, are


phases are usually brought about by












the depletion of available



Bacterial Growth Curve









nutrients and the produc-




Growth Phases












tion of their waste.


































Conditions Necessary































for the Growth of


































Bacteria (FATTOM)

































Food—Bacteria require












food for growth. The






















foods that they like the























most are the same ones we

1:00 3:00 5:00 7:00 9:00 11:00


3:00 5:00







do. These are generally













Growth of Bacteria


Number of



30 minutes later


1 hour later


11/2 hours later


2 hours later


21/2 hours later


3 hours later


31/2 hours later


4 hours later


high protein foods of animal origin, such as meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, milk and milk products. They also love plant products that are heat treated, such as cooked potato, cooked rice, tofu, and soy protein foods.

Acidity—Bacteria generally prefer neutral foods. They do not fare well in foods that are too acidic or too alkaline. This is why vine- gar is used as a preservative. Acidity is measured in pH. Any food with a pH value of 4.6 or less is considered too acidic for bacteria to grow, therefore, these foods are relatively safer.

pH Values of Some Popular Foods




pH range

Ground beef

5.1 to 6.2


5.9 to 6.1

Fish (most species)

6.6 to 6.8




4.8 to 6.3




6.1 to 6.4




4.9 to 5.9


6.3 to 7.0


3.8 to 4.2


3.1 to 6.5


1.8 to 6.7

Orange juice

3.6 to 4.3


6.3 to 6.7


3.0 to 4.1





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Temperature—In general, bacteria prefer warm temperatures. Those that prefer our food grow between 41–140°F (Temperature Danger Zone). This temperature range includes normal body tem- perature and usual room tempera- ture. However, different types of bacteria prefer different tempera- tures.

Mesophilic Bacteria grow best at temperatures between 50–110°F. Most bacteria are in this group.

Thermophilic Bacteria prefer heat and grow best at temperatures between 110–150°F or more.

Psychrophilic Bacteria prefer cold and grow at temperatures below 50°F.

One way to control the growth of bacteria is to ensure that they are not within the Temperature Danger Zone (See Page 2).

Time Bacteria require time to grow and multiply. When condi- tions are favorable, one bacterium will split and become two every twenty to thirty minutes. Thus, the more time they have, the more bacteria will be produced. The simplest way of controlling bacte- ria is to minimize the time foods stay in the temperature danger zone.

Oxygen—Some bacteria need oxygen from the air in order to grow; these are called aerobes. Others prefer it when there is no air or oxygen; these are called anaerobes. There are yet others that will thrive whether oxygen is present or not; these are called facultative aerobes or facultative anaerobes.

Moisture—Bacteria need mois- ture or water in order to survive. Food is absorbed in a liquid form through the cell wall. If moisture is not present in sufficient quantity,

bacteria will eventually die.





Bacteria can be controlled by

Water Activity of Some Popular Foods

removing moisture from



foods by the processes of





dehydration, freezing and

Fresh fruits

.97 to 1.0

preserving in salt or sugar.


.97 to .99



.96 to .97

The amount of moisture in


.95 to 1.0

a food is measured by Water

Fresh meat

.95 to 1.0

Activity value. Any food


.90 to .94

with a Water Activity value

Cured meat

.87 to .95

of .85 or less does not have


.75 to .80

enough moisture to support


.54 to .75

the active growth of bacteria.

Dried fruit

.55 to .80

Chocolate candy

.55 to .80




.60 to .65


Dried milk


Bacteria cannot crawl, fly or

Dried vegetables


move about. A few types do



have thread-like appendages





called flagella with which they

temperature, the less time is neces-

can propel themselves to a very lim-

sary. An example of this principle

ited extent. Therefore they must be

involves the two accepted methods

carried from place to place by some

for pasteurizing milk. In the “hold-

vehicle or through some channel.

ing” method, milk is held at a tem-

The modes of transmission

perature of 145°F for thirty minutes

while in the “flash” or “high tem-

include: air, water, food, hands,

perature short time” method, milk

coughing, sneezing, insects, rodents,

is held at 161°F for fifteen seconds.

dirty equipment, unsafe plumbing


connections and unclean utensils.


Hands are one of the most danger-

Destructon by Chemicals

ous vehicles. There is no doubt that

Bacteria can be destroyed by

that if food workers would take bet-

chemical agents. Chemicals that kill

ter care of their hands then the inci-

bacteria are called germicides or

dence of foodborne disease would

bactericides. Examples are carbolic

be reduced greatly.

acid, formaldehyde, iodine, chlorine



and quaternary compounds. The

Destruction by Heat

effectiveness of a bactericide

depends on the concentration used.

The most reliable and time-tested

When used to kill pathogenic (dis-

method of destroying bacteria is the

ease-causing) organisms, it is called

use of heat. This method is most

a sanitizer. The most popular sani-

effective when both time and tem-

tizer used in the food industry is

perature factors are applied. In


other words, not only do we have to


reach the desired temperature to


destroy bacteria, but we must allow

Other Methods of Destruction

sufficient time to permit the heat to

When exposed to air and sun-

kill the more sturdy ones. The lower

light, bacteria are destroyed due to

the temperature of the heat applied,

the combined effects of the lack of

the longer the time required to kill

moisture and exposure to the ultra-

bacteria; conversely, the higher the

violet rays of the sun.

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Refrigeration of foods does not

destroy the bacteria already present. Cold temperatures from 0°F to

41°F will inhibit or slow the growth of bacteria. Thus, a food item will still be safe after several days in a refrigerator but not indefinitely.

Freezing foods at or below 0°F will further slow or even stop the growth of bacteria but will not kill them.


tion of alcohol.


Viruses are minute organic forms which seem to be intermediate between living cells and organic compounds. They are smaller than bacteria, and are sometimes called filterable viruses because they are so small that they can pass through the tiny pores of a porcelain filter which retain bacteria. They cannot be seen through a microscope (magnifica- tion of 1500x), but can be seen through an electron microscope (magnification of 1,000,000x). Viruses cause poliomyelitis, small- pox, measles, mumps, encephalitis, influenza, and the common cold. Viruses, like bacteria, are presumed to exist everywhere.

highly contagious and can spread very quickly. Hepatitis A virus can be fatal as it affects the liver.


Parasites are organisms that live in or on other organisms without benefiting the host organisms. Parasites are not capable of living independent- ly. The two most common parasites that affect the food industry include trichinella spiralis, which is common- ly associated with pork, and the round Anisakid worm that is associ- ated with many species of fish. With the growing interest in eating raw marinated fish such as sushi, sashi- mi, ceviche etc., there is an increased risk of illnesses such as Anisakiasis.


Yeasts reproduce by budding, which is similar to binary fission. Generally, the methods described for destruction of bacteria will kill yeasts as well.

Yeasts are not generally consid- ered to be pathogenic or harmful, although a few of them do cause skin infections. Wild yeasts, or those that get into a food by accident rather than by design of the food processor, cause food spoilage and decomposition of starch and sugar, and therefore are undesirable.


Molds are multicellular (many- celled) microscopic plants which become visible to the naked eye when growing in sufficient quantity. Mold colonies have definite colors (white, black, green, etc.). They are

Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot reproduce in the food. Food only serves as a reservoir and a trans- porting mechanism until it is ingested. Once viruses invade our body, they use our cells to duplicate themselves. Most often, the presence of viruses in food supply is an indi- cation of contamination through human feces. Food worker’s poor personal hygiene – for instance, not washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet, is a major cause of these viral infections. The two most common types of viruses in the food industry are Hepatitis A, and Noroviruses (previously known as Norwalk Virus). Noroviruses have been recently implicated in various food borne illness outbreaks involv- ing cruise ships. Noroviruses are

Yeasts are one-celled organisms which are larger than bacteria. They, too, are found everywhere, and require food, moisture, warmth, and air for proper growth. Unlike some bacteria which live with- out air, yeasts must have air in order to grow. They need sugar, but have the ability to change starch into sugar. When yeasts act on sugar, the for- mation of alcohol and carbon diox- ide results. In the baking industry, yeast is used to “raise dough” through the production of carbon dioxide. The alcohol is driven off by the heat of the oven. In wine pro- duction, the carbon dioxide gas bub- bles off, leaving the alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced by yeasts is limited to 18%, because yeasts are killed at this concentra-

larger than bacteria or yeasts. Some molds are pathogenic, causing such diseases as athletes’ foot, ringworm, and other skin diseases. However, moldy foods usually do not cause illness. In fact, molds are encouraged to grow in certain cheeses to pro- duce a characteristic flavor.

The structure of the mold con- sists of a root-like structure called the mycelium, a stem (aerial filament) called the hypha, and the spore sac, called the sporangium. All molds reproduce by means of spores. Molds are the lowest form of life that have these specialized reproductive cells.

Molds require moisture and air for growth and can grow on almost any organic matter, which does not necessarily have to be food. Molds do not require warmth, and grow



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very well in refrigerators. Neither do molds require much moisture, although the more moisture present, the better they multiply.

Methods of destruction for molds are similar to those required for bac- teria. Heat, chemicals, and ultravio- let rays destroy mold spores as well

as the molds. Refrigeration does not necessarily retard their growth.

Certain chemicals act as mold inhibitors. Calcium propionate (Mycoban) is one used in making bread. This chemical when used in the dough, retards the germination of mold spores, and bread so treated will remain mold-free for about five days.

One of the most beneficial molds is the Penicillium mold from which penicillin, an antibiotic, is extracted. The discovery, by Dr. Alexander Fleming, of the mold’s antibiotic properties opened up a whole field of research, and other antibiotic products from molds have been discovered.


1.Foods that have been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria ( will will not) change in taste and smell.

2.Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population every 20 to 30 minutes. TRUE FALSE

3. At what temperature is rapid growth of pathogenic bacteria possible? 65°F 140°F

4.What are the six factors that affect the growth of bacteria?_______, _______, _______, ________, ________, ________.

5.Which of the following foods may encourage rapid growth of bacteria?: Cooked rice/Hard boiled air cooled shell egg

6.What type of bacteria grows best at temperatures between 50°-110°F? _______________

7.What is the water activity level at which bacteria have difficulty reproducing? _______________

8.In the life cycle of bacteria, during which phase do bacteria grow most quickly? _______________

9.Most viral food-borne diseases are the result of poor personal hygiene. TRUE FALSE

10.The food-borne parasite typically found in under-cooked pork is: _____________

11.A food-borne parasite typically found in marine fish is: _______________

12.The most popular chemical sanitizer is _______________

13.Food held under refrigeration must be at or below: __________°F

14.The reason for refrigerating potentially hazardous foods is to: _______________


There are three categories of foodborne illnesses: infection,

intoxication and toxin mediated infection.

Foodborne Infection

This is an illness that is caused by eating a food that has large numbers of microorganisms on it. These micro- organisms enter the human digestive tract and disrupt the functions of the intestines resulting in diarrhea and other problems. The severity of the problem depends on the dosage ingested and the particular bacterium.

The first symptoms of an infection will occur from as early as six hours to

as long as forty eight hours after the contaminated food is eaten.

Foodborne Intoxication

This is an illness that is caused by eating a food that has the toxins that are generated by certain micro- organisms. The longer a micro-organ- ism is on a food, the more time it has to multiply and produce its waste products. These waste products are toxins and result in an intoxication when that food is eaten.

It is important to note that an intoxication will cause nausea and vomiting, either immediately after the food is eaten or within the first

six hours. Also, toxins are not destroyed by heat so once they are formed no amount of cooking after- wards will inactivate them.

Foodborne Toxin Mediated


This illness occurs when one ingests a food that has microorganisms on it. These micro- organisms find favorable conditions to grow in the intestines and produce their toxins which will then cause a foodborne illness.

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Salmonella enteritidis


Animals, poultry, eggs, and humans

FOODS INVOLVED: Chicken, other poultry, eggs


6–48 hours



Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, fever,


nausea, vomiting, and malaise



2–10 days



Diarrhea (often-times bloody), severe


abdominal pain, fever, anorexia,


malaise, headache and vomiting.


Proper sanitization of equipment in order to pre- vent cross contamination.

Thoroughly cook meat, poultry and poultry products.

Use only pasteurized milk.

Use potable water.

Cook chicken, poultry and stuffing to 165°F for at least 15 seconds.

Refrigerate raw chicken, poultry, and other meats to 41°F or lower.

Pay close attention to eggs: store eggs in a refrigera- tor at 45°F or lower. Cook eggs to 145°F or higher, (or per customer request), break and cook eggs to order, and use pasteurized eggs instead of raw eggs if a food is not going to be cooked to at least 145°F.

Prevent cross contamination.


Staphylococcal gastroenteritis


Staphylococcus aureus


Healthy human beings: in nose,


throat, hair, on infected cuts, bruises,


abscesses and acne.

FOODS INVOLVED: Baked goods, custards, pastry, and


cooked foods traditionally left out at


room temperature: ham, sliced meats


and other foods with low water activity


6–48 hours



Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills,


fever, nausea, vomiting, and malaise


Prevent bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.

Practice good personal hygiene.

Prevent infected food workers from working. Look out for any worker that has an infected cut or wound on the hands or skin.

Keep all foods at 41°F or below; cool foods rapidly.


BACTERIA: Campylobacter jejuni

SOURCE: Poultry, pigs, sheep and cattle

FOODS INVOLVED: Chicken, other poultry, beef, liver and water




Listeria monocytogenes


Soil, infected animals or humans,


and water

FOODS INVOLVED: Unpateurized milk, raw vegetables,


poultry, raw meats, cheese


1 day–3 weeks



Low grade fever, flu-like symptoms,


stillbirths, meningitis and encephalitis. *


Fatalities may occur


Cook foods thoroughly and to required minimum temperatures.

Use only pasteurized milk and dairy products.

Thoroughly wash raw vegetables before eating.

Avoid cross contamination.

Clean and sanitize all surfaces.




Shigella species



FOODS INVOLVED: Raw produce, moist prepared foods–


tuna, macaroni, potato salads, etc.


1–7 days



Abdominal pain, diarrhea bloody


stools and fever.


Practice good personal hygiene with special emphasis on hand washing, especially after using the toilet.

Avoid bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods.

Rapidly cool foods to 41°F or below.

Avoid cross contamination.

Eliminate flies from the facility.

Clean and sanitize all surfaces.



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Clostridium botulinum


Soil, water, intestinal tract of animals


and fish

FOODS INVOLVED: Home-canned foods, smoked and


vacuum packaged fish, garlic in oil,


baked potatoes, and thick stews


12–36 hours

TYPE OF ILLNESS: Intoxication


Gastrointestinal symptoms may pre-


cede neurological symptoms: vertigo,


blurred or double vision, dryness of


mouth, difficulty swallowing, speak-


ing and breathing, muscular weak-


ness and respiratory paralysis. This


illness may cause fatalities.


Hemorrhagic colitis

Shiga toxin producing escherichia coli such as e.coli 0157:h7

Cattle, humans, unpasteurized milk, untreated water

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw and undercooked ground meats, fresh produce, unpasteurized milk and untreated water

12–72 hours

Intoxication as well as infection Diarrhea (often bloody), severe abdominal pain nausea, vomiting, chills. In children it may complicate into hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus), responsible for kidney failure and blood poisoning.


Never use home-canned or home-jarred products.

Store smoked fish at 38°F or below. Store all vacuum packaged foods according to manufacturer’s rec- ommended instructions (time and temperatures).

Keep commercially prepared garlic and other herbs in oil refrigerated at all times.

Avoid cross contamination.

ILLNESS:Scombroid poisoning

BACTERIA: Bacteria that help produce histamine

SOURCE:: Tuna, bluefish, mackerel, bonito, and mahi mahi

FOODS INVOLVED: Cooked or raw tuna, bluefish, mack-


erel, bonito, and mahi mahi


Minutes–2 hours

TYPE OF ILLNESS: Intoxication


Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting,


peppery taste, burning sensation in the


throat, facial swelling and stomach aches.


Use a reputable supplier.

Refuse fish that have been thawed and re-frozen. Signs that fish have been re-frozen include dried or dehydrated appearance; excessive frost or ice crystals in the package; or white blotches (freezer burns).

Check temperatures. Fresh fish must be between 32°F and 41°F.

Thaw frozen fish at refrigeration temperature of 41°F or below.

Cook ground beef and all ground meats to 158°F or higher.

Cook all foods to required minimum cooking temperatures.

Use pasteurized milk.

Reheat all foods to 165°F within 2 hours.

Avoid cross contamination.

Practice good personal hygiene. Wash hands thor- oughly after touching raw foods or after any activity that may have contaminated them.

ILLNESS:Clostridium perfringens


BACTERIA: Clostridium perfringens

SOURCE: Soil, water, gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals (cattle, poultry, pigs, and fish)

FOODS INVOLVED: Meat, stews, chilli, gravies, poultry, beans

ONSET TIME: 8–22 hours

TYPE OF ILLNESS: Intoxication as well as infection

SYMPTOMS: Diarrhea and abdominal pain


Rapidly cool meat dishes. (cooling methods are discussed in detail on pages 28-29.

Rapidly reheat foods to 165°F within 2 hours.

Avoid preparing foods days in advance.

Do not reheat foods on the steam table or any other hot holding equipment.

Hold hot foods at 140°F or above.

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Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis


Bacillus cereus


Soil and dust, cereal crops

FOODS INVOLVED: Rice, starchy foods–pasta, potatoes, dry food products, meats, and milk.

ONSET TIME: 30 minutes–5 hours

TYPE OF ILLNESS: Intoxication as well as infection

SYMPTOMS: Nausea, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea


Do not keep foods at room temperature.

Rapidly cool meat dishes.

Rapidly reheat foods to 165°F within 2 hours.

Serve cooked foods quickly after preparation.

ILLNESS:Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis

BACTERIA: Vibrio parahaemolyticus

SOURCE: Clams, oysters, scallops, shrimp, crabs

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw or partially cooked shellfish

ONSET TIME: 30 minutes–5 hours

TYPE OF ILLNESS: Intoxication as well as infection

SYMPTOMS: Nausea, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea


Avoid eating raw or undercooked shellfish.

Purchase seafood from approved sources.

Keep all seafood refrigerated at 41°F or lower.

Avoid cross contamination.


Hepatitis A


Hepatitis A virus


Human feces, fecal contaminated


waters, fecal contaminated produce

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw or partially cooked shellfish,


fruits and vegetables, salads, cold


cuts, water and ice.


15–50 days


Fever, malaise, lassitude,nausea,


abdominal pain and jaundice


Obtain shellfish from approved sources.

Ensure that food workers practice good personal hygiene.

Avoid cross contamination.

Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces.

Use potable water.

ILLNESS:Norovirus gastroentritis

VIRUS:Norovirus (aka norwalk-like virus)

SOURCE:: Human feces, fecal contaminated waters, fecal contaminated produce

FOODS INVOLVED: Ready-to-eat foods such as salads, sandwiches, baked products,oysters, fruits and vegetables.

ONSET TIME: 12–48 hours

SYMPTOMS: Fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pains


Prevent ill food workers from working until fully recovered.

Ensure that food workers practice good personal hygiene.

Obtain shellfish from approved sources.

Avoid cross contamination.

Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces.

Use potable water.


Rotavirus gastroenteritis




Human feces, fecal contaminated


waters, fecal contaminated food

FOODS INVOLVED: Ready-to-eat foods such as salads,


sandwiches, baked products, contam-


inated water


1–3 days


Vomiting,watery diarrhea, abdominal


pains and mild fever


Prevent ill food workers from working until fully recovered.

Ensure that food workers practice good personal hygiene.

Avoid cross contamination.

Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces.

Use potable water.


Astrovirus gastroenteritis




Human feces, fecal contaminated



FOODS INVOLVED: Ready-to-eat foods such as salads,


sandwiches, baked products, contam-


inated water.


10–70 hours



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SYMPTOMS: Vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdomi- nal pains and mild fever.

Outbreaks are more likely to occur in daycare and eldercare facilities.


Prevent ill food workers from working until fully recovered.

Ensure that food workers practice good personal hygiene.

Avoid cross contamination.

Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces.

Use potable water.




Trichinella spiralis


Pigs, wild game such as bear and walrus

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw and undercooked pork, pork


products, bear , walrus and any other


food products contaminated with


the former.


4–28 days


Gastroenteritis, fever, facial edema,


muscular pains, prostration, and


labored breathing.


Cook pork and pork products to 155°F or higher for at least 15 seconds.

Wash, rinse and sanitize equipment used to process pork and pork products before use.

Purchase all pork and pork products from approved suppliers.




Anisakis simplex


Marine fish (saltwater species)

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw, undercooked, or improperly


frozen fish like pacific salmon, mackerel,


halibut, monkfish, herring, flounder,


fluke, cod, haddock, and other fish


used for sushi, sashimi, and ceviche.


Within hours


Mild cases include tingling or tickling


sensation in throat, vomiting, or coughing


up worms. Severe cases include debilitating


stomach pains, vomiting, and diarrhea.


Obtain seafood from approved sources.

Thoroughly cook all seafood to 145°F or higher.

Only use sushi-grade fish for sushi and sashimi.

Any fish to be consumed raw should be frozen at minus 31°F for 15 hours.


PARASITE: Cyclospora cayetanensis

SOURCE: Human feces; fecal contaminated water

FOODS INVOLVED: Raw produce, raw milk, water.

ONSET TIME: About a week

SYMPTOMS: Watery diarrhea, mild fever, nausea,

abdominal pains.


Ensure food workers practice good personal hygiene.

Wash all produce- fruits and vegetables, especially berries, thoroughly.

Use potable water.


1.Salmonella enteritidis is mainly associated with: ___________

2.Food workers sick with an illness that can be transmitted by contact with food or through food should be: ___________

3.We can control the growth of the microorganism clostridium perfringens by _________ ,_________,___________.

4.Ground meats such as hamburgers must be cooked to a minimum temperature of 158°F to eliminate: ___________

5.Clostridium botulinum causes the disease known as botulism. TRUE FALSE

6.The microorganism Clostridium botulinum is mainly associated with the following: Smoked fish/tuna fish

7.The following illness has been associated with under-cooked shell eggs: ___________

8.Staphylococcal food intoxication is a common cause of food-borne illness that can be prevented by cooking foods thoroughly.


9.Shigellosis can be eliminated by cooking pork to 155°F for 15 seconds. TRUE FALSE

10.Scombroid poisoning occurs when someone eats decomposing: ___________

11.Viral Hepatitis is caused by Bacillus cereus. TRUE FALSE

12.Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) among children. TRUE FALSE

13.Escherichia coli O157:H7 is mainly associated with ground poultry. TRUE FALSE

14.The illness trichinosis is caused by a parasite known as Trichinella spiralis. TRUE FALSE

15.To avoid trichinosis, NYC Health Code requires pork to be cooked to a minimum temperature of: ___________

16.Shellfish tags must be kept with the product until it's used up and then filed away for: ___________

17.Raw, marinated or partially cooked fish is made safe by freezing at ______°F for ______

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The Steps of

Proper Hand Washing

Personal hygiene simply means keeping yourself, and your clothes

as clean as possible. Proper personal hygiene is extremely important in preventing food borne illness since people are the main source of food contamination. Food workers should always practice the highest standards of personal hygiene to ensure that food is safe from biological, chemical, and physical hazards. Personal hygiene enhances the good public image that is so essential to a good food business. Highest standards of personal hygiene include proper hand washing, short and clean fingernails, notifying super- visor when ill, use of proper hair restraints, proper use of disposable gloves, refraining from wearing jewelry, avoid eating, drinking, smoking or otherwise engaging in any activity that may contaminate the foods.

Personal hygiene is a combination of several components described below:

Proper Work Attire

Employees who prepare or serve food products, or wash and sanitize equipment and utensils must wear clean outer gar- ments. It is recommended that aprons, chef jackets, or smocks are worn over street clothing. Whenever food workers leave the food area, they should remove their apron and store it properly. For example, when using the bathroom, on breaks, taking out trash, or delivering food.

Keep personal clothing and other personal items away from food han- dling and storage areas. Employers must provide adequate storage areas for employees’ personal belongings.

Hair Restraints

Food workers are required to wear hair restraints such as hair nets, caps, hats, scarves, or other form of hair

restraints that are effective (facial hair included). This is necessary to pre- vent them from touching their hair as well as to prevent hair from falling into the food.

Wearing of Jewelry

Wearing jewelry such as necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and other jewelry while working poses a physical hazard and as such should not be worn by food workers when preparing or serving food (a wedding band is an exception to this rule.)

Importance of Clean Hands

Clean hands are extremely important for the safety of food. Most people do not realize that as part of the normal flora, we carry a lot of different disease causing microorganisms on our hands. For instance, it is estimated that roughly 50–75 % of all healthy humans carry the Staphylococcus bacteria (mainly in the nasal passage which can easily be transferred to hands by simply touching or blowing the nose). About 60–70% of the healthy humans carry Clostridium perfringens, which can also be easily transmitted onto foods with hands.

In addition to the normal flora, there are also transient microorganisms found on our hands that we pick up through incidental contact by touching various objects. For instance, traveling to work from home, we may end up touching various contaminated sur- faces, e.g., door handles, turnstiles, etc. This is the reason why hands must be washed often and thoroughly.

Hand washing

Washing hands properly is the most effective way of removing microorganisms. Proper hand wash- ing involves the use of both hot and cold running water, soap, and paper towels or a hot air dryer.

Use hot and cold running water

Wet hands and apply soap,

lather generously up to the elbow

Use a brush on the nails.

Rub hands together for 20 seconds

Rinse hands thoroughly

Dry hands on disposable paper

towels or a hot air dryer



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Always ensure that hands are washed and dried thoroughly before starting work, between tasks, and before working with food products, equipment, utensils, and linen. Correct hand washing includes cleaning the backs of hands, palms, forearms, between fingers and under the fingernails using hot water, soap, and a fingernail brush.

Hand-washing sinks must be located within 25 feet of each food preparation, food service and ware- washing area, and in or adjacent to employee and patron bathrooms. Doors, equipment and other material cannot block hand-washing sinks.

Bare hand contact

The New York City Health Code prohibits the handling of ready-to- eat foods with bare hands. Although proper hand washing reduces a sig- nificant number of microorganisms from hands, but never removes all of them. In addition to that, many people can also be carriers of disease causing microorganisms without

getting sick themselves. These indi- viduals may not show the symptoms (asymptomatic) or they may have recovered from an illness, but they can easily pass these germs to others through contact with food or food areas. This is why it is important to prevent bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods by means of san- itary gloves or other utensils such as tongs, spatula, deli paper (tissue), or other utensils.

Exclusion of sick Employees

Any food employee who is sick with an illness that is transmissible through contact with food must be excluded from working in the food establishment until fully recovered. Some of these illnesses include:





E. Coli 0157:H7


Hepatitis A




Streptococcal sore throat (including scarlet fever)

Superficial staphylococcal infection




Infected cut or boil

Any other communicable disease

It is the employee’s responsibility to inform the supervisor in case of an illness, however; supervisors should be vigilant and observe any signs that may indicate that the employee may be sick. Train employees properly on the hazards of working while ill with a disease transmissible through contact with or through food.

Cuts, Wounds, and Sores

All cuts and wounds that are not infected on the hands and arms must be completely covered by a waterproof bandage. Wear single- use gloves or finger cots over any bandages on the hands and fingers.

The Don’t Habits

Personal Hygiene Checklist

1)Don’t smoke or use tobacco in any form while in the food preparation area.

2)Don’t work when you have a fever, cough, cold, upset stomach or diarrhea.

3)Don’t store personal medication among food.

4)Don’t work if you have an infected, pus-filled wound.

5)Don’t use a hand sanitizer as a substitute for hand washing. A hand sanitizer may be used in addition to proper hand washing.

6)Don’t spit about while preparing food.

At the beginning of each work day ask yourself the following questions:

4Did I shower or take a bath before coming to work?

4Am I sick with a fever, cold or diarrhea?

4Do I have any infected cuts or burns?

4Are my nails clean, trimmed and free from nail polish?

4Are my apron and clothing clean?

4Did I remove my jewelry?

4Am I wearing my hat, cap or hairnet?


1.As Per New York City Health Code, hands must be washed thoroughly at least 3 times every day. TRUE FALSE

2.Sick food workers who can transmit their illness thorough contact with food should be prevented from working until they are well. TRUE FALSE

3.Hands must be washed thoroughly after: ________, __________, ___________, ___________, __________, __________.

4.The NYC Health Code requires hand wash sinks to be readily accessible at all ____________ and ______________.

5.The hand wash sinks must be provided with: ________ and ________ running water, ________ and ________.

6.The NYC Health Code requires that all food workers wear proper hair restraint. TRUE FALSE

7.A food worker with an infected cut on his/her hand: ____________________

8.During hand washing hands must be rubbed together for at least: __________________

9.Clean aprons can be used for wiping hands. TRUE FALSE

10.Hand sanitizer can be used in place of hand washing during busy periods. TRUE FALSE

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perature danger zone must be con-












trolled. Preparing or processing the







item in batches will minimize the








his is another step during

are needed. In this way the frozen


amount of time that item is out of



refrigerated storage and the oppor-

Twhich care is needed to main-

item will defrost but will not go



tunity for microorganisms to grow.

above 41°F.


tain food safety. Preparation refers



to the actions that are necessary

2) Frozen foods may be sub-


After preparation, if the food is



before a food item can be cooked,


not cooked immediately, it must

merged under water with the cold




or in the case of a food that is


again be refrigerated until it is ready

water faucet open and the water




served raw, actions that are neces-


for cooking. Care must be taken to

running continuously so that any




sary before it can be served.


ensure that potentially hazardous

loose particles may float and run off.








foods are never left out in the tem-








3) Frozen foods may be thawed


perature danger zone except for very


Thawing is also referred to as

in a microwave oven but this may


short periods during preparation.

defrosting. The Health Code

only be done if:


Cross contamination

requires that whole frozen poultry




After thawing, the food item is


This is a term typically used for

must be thawed before being


removed immediately for cooking

any situation where harmful

cooked, however, a single portion

in the regular oven or stove.



microorganisms transfer from a raw

may be cooked from a frozen state.





The entire cooking process takes


or contaminated food to a cooked


Other potentially hazardous



place without interruption in the


or ready-to-eat food. All raw products,

products should be treated in the

microwave oven.


particularly meat, fish and eggs, have

same way: individual portions may




harmful microorganisms. Therefore,

be cooked from a frozen state, while

Cutting, Chopping, Mixing,


it is important to keep them separate

all others should be thawed before

Mincing, Breading


from cooked or ready-to-eat foods.

cooking. It is important to use

Any necessary process that will


Cross-contamination can happen in

methods that will allow the entire

place a food item within the tem-


many ways, the following are but a few:

mass to thaw evenly. Any method





that only allows the outside surface




to thaw while the inner portion




remains frozen is unacceptable,

Cross-contamination happens when bacteria from one food spread to another.

since the outside surface will be in

This is a common cause of foodborne illnesses. One way to prevent this is to

keep cooked and ready-to-eat foods away from potentially hazardous raw foods,

the danger zone for a prolonged

such as meat, poultry and fish. To reduce the risk of cross-contamination, the

period of time.

Health Code now requires washing food in:





The New York City Health Code

1. A single-compartment culinary sink used for this purpose only.


2. A dedicated compartment of a multi compartment sink.

allows the following acceptable

3. A food-grade container or colander (if neither of the above is available).

thawing methods:

4. Food-washing sinks must be cleaned and sanitized prior to use and after the





1) Frozen foods can be removed

washing of raw meat.



from the freezer and stored in a

5. A sink in which food is washed may not be used as a slop or utility sink or

for hand-washing.



refrigerator a day or two before they





















Thawing Methods









Cold Running Water












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Preparing raw chicken for cook- ing and then preparing a fresh salad without washing hands thoroughly.

Preparing raw chicken and then cutting the cooked chicken on the same cutting board.

Storing a raw product above a cooked product in such a manner that the juices of the product above fall on the product below.

In all three examples, as in most cases in which cross contamination is the cause of a foodborne illness, human errors play a major role.

Therefore, food workers have to be vigilant to prevent these situations from occurring.

Bare hand contact

Ready-to-eat foods served by infected food workers have proven to be a serious public health problem and as such, regulations were put in place to prohibit bare hand contact with foods that will not be later cooked or reheated before serving.

What kind of foods may not be prepared with bare hands?

Ready-to-eat foods such as salads and sandwiches; foods that will not later be cooked to a temperature

required by the Health Code; and food that is not later reheated to 165°F before serving.

What are acceptable practices to prepare ready-to-eat foods?

The use of utensils, tongs, deli paper or sanitary gloves are accept- able for preparing ready-to-eat foods.

May ready-to-eat foods be touched with bare hands if the hands are washed, or a germicidal soap or hand sanitizer is used?

No. Although hand washing is effective in reducing contamination, not all of the contamination can be removed from the hands. Germicidal soaps and hand sanitizer are not effective in food industry because of the high levels of fat molecules on worker's hands. These molecules allow microbes to survive.

What happens if gloves, deli paper or other utensils are not available to prepare ready-to-eat foods?

If appropriate utensils are not available, ready-to-eat foods may not be prepared until bare hand contact with food can be prevented. If bare hand contact with ready-to- eat foods is observed by health department inspectors, a violation will be recorded on the inspection report and enforcement action will

be taken. Any ready-to-eat food that has been prepared with bare hands is considered to be contaminated and should be discarded.

How often should disposable gloves be changed?

Disposable gloves must be changed when they become contaminated, torn or when the food service worker leaves the food preparation area. They should also be changed frequent- ly to minimize build-up of perspiration and bacteria inside the gloves.

May I use the same pair of dispos- able gloves to prepare raw meat or poultry and then prepare ready- to-eat food?

No. This is an example of cross- contamination. Disposable gloves worn during preparation of raw foods, such as uncooked meat and poultry, must not be used to pre- pare ready-to-eat food.

How can ready-to-eat foods be prepared during grilling and slic- ing operations?

A glove can be worn on the hand that is used to prepare ready-to-eat ingredients, leaving the other hand uncovered for placing raw ingredients on the grill. Wear tight fitting gloves when operating a slicing machine or chopping or cutting food. It is safer to use tight fitting gloves.


Cooking is a critical step in the food preparation process. It is at this stage that we have the opportu-

nity to destroy microorganisms or germs that are on raw foods. Cooking food to an internal tempera- ture that will destroy the microor- ganisms normally found on it will ensure the safety of that food. The required internal temperature must be reached without any interrup- tion of the cooking process. It is

important to use a sanitized, properly calibrated thermometer to verify that the required minimum cooking temperature is reached.

Rare Roast Beef

Rare roast beef and/or rare beef steaks are to be cooked to the fol- lowing minimum temperatures and times, unless otherwise requested by the customer.

Temperature Time

130 ° F 121 minutes

132 ° F 77 minutes

134 ° F 47 minutes

136 ° F 32 minutes

138 ° F 19 minutes

140 ° F 12 minutes

142 ° F

8 minutes

144 ° F

5 minutes

145 ° F

3 minutes

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Cooking Temperatures for Various Foods



Minimum Internal





Cooking Temperature









Take special precautions with poultry, since there are more

Poultry, stuffed meats,

165 °F

types and higher counts of microorganisms present. Always

and stuffing containing

(for 15 seconds)

cook stuffing separately from the poultry, because stuffing







acts as insulation.











Most meats are likely to be contaminated with harmful

Ground meats, and foods

158 °F

microorganisms on the surface. When meat is ground, the

containing ground meats

(for 15 seconds)

surface microorganisms are mixed throughout the product.





Pork and foods

155 °F

This is the temperature needed to destroy the trichinella spp.,

as well as other microorganisms such as toxoplasma gondii.

containing pork

(for 15 seconds)










Exception: Eggs may be prepared at a lower temperature

Shell eggs and foods

145 °F

when requested by customer. Pooling of eggs is not permitted.

Only use pasteurized eggs for recipes that call for no cook-

containing shell eggs

(for 15 seconds)

ing or limited cooking. (e.g. Caesar Salad dressing, eggnog,







hollandaise sauce, etc.)







145 °F

This includes lobsters, shrimps, clams, oysters, mussels,

All other meats and fish



(for 15 seconds)

lamb, goat, etc.






















Cooking outdoors is now allowed provided the establishment protects food and equipment. To cook outdoors, the establish- ment must:

1.Have permission to cook outdoors from the Buildings and Fire Departments and any other agency as required by law.

2.Maintain complete control of the outdoor cooking space.

3.Provide a hand wash sink if food is prepared outdoors.

4.Protect food, utensils and cooking equipment from contamination using awnings, tents, screens or vermin-resistant containers.

5.Store food, utensils and equipment indoors when the outdoor area is not in operation.

6.Prevent nuisances, such as from smoke, garbage, noise or pests.

7.Construct the floor using smooth, durable, non-absorbent and easily cleanable material that is free of gaps.

8.Have sufficient lighting to allow safe operations and cleaning.

The Health Code requires 540 Lux (50 foot candles) of lighting at surfaces where food workers are preparing and processing food or using utensils or equipment such as knives, slicers, grinders or saws.

Note: Cooking is not allowed on a street or sidewalk, except during street fairs or other events where City permission has been granted.



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Foods must be hot at







140° or higher before







they are placed in the







Hot Holding Unit




Never place cold foods in








the Hot Holding Unit














Proper Hot Holding




The Hot Holding Unit













must be preheated















before foods are








placed in it.











Never double stack food





Check food temps frequently.













containers in the steam table.
































Cooking in a Microwave Oven

Microwave cooking allows for a faster cooking process, however the cooking is uneven and can lead to "cold spots" where bacteria can easi- ly multiply to a dangerous level. It is important to follow the guidelines below to ensure proper cooking:

Arrange food items evenly and cover the dish with a lid or plastic wrap; the moist heat will help destroy harmful bacteria and ensure uniform cooking.

When cooking large cuts of meats, adjust the settings to medium power, and cook for longer periods of time to ensure proper cooking.

Stir or rotate food halfway through the process to eliminate cold spots where harmful bacteria can sur- vive, and for more even cooking.

Foods may be partially cooked in the microwave oven and then transferred to conventional oven for completion, however this trans- fer must be done immediately.

Let food stand for at least two minutes after microwaving to

allow even distribution of heat throughout the product.

Use a food thermometer to verify that the proper temperature is reached. Due to uneven cooking process in the microwave ovens, add 25°F to the final cooking temperature to ensure thorough cooking.

Hot Holding

Once food is cooked, if not served immediately, it must be held at the proper temperature.

Potentially hazardous food (PHF) that have just finished the cooking process or that have just been reheated must either be served immediately or held hot for future service. These foods must be held constantly at 140°F or higher. Failure to hold such foods at the adequate temperature will result in the growth of bacteria. This common error results in many cases of food borne illness each year.

A hot holding unit must be used to hot hold potentially hazardous foods properly. This unit must hold foods at 140°F or higher. Care and constant monitoring are required to

ensure that foods do not fall below 140°F. These foods should never be stored at room temperature.

Place only hot foods (140°F) in a hot holding unit, never cold or warm foods. The unit must first be pre-heated. The water in the reser- voir should be approximately 180°F before use. Hot holding units should not be used to re-heat cold foods unless they are designed for this purpose.

Constant monitoring of these foods is required to ensure that they remain at 140°F. Assign an employee to check food temperatures frequently and have these temperatures recorded.

An adequate number of properly functioning hot holding units are needed to store all potentially haz- ardous foods adequately. Foods placed in an overcrowded or over- stocked steam table will not receive sufficient heat and will drop into the temperature danger zone. All foods must be placed directly in or near enough to the heat source to provide adequate heating. Food trays should not be stacked on top of each other (double-stacked) as this results in insufficient heating of the upper trays and possible contamination of the lower tray.

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Microwave-safe containers prevent harmful substances from leaching into foods. To protect diners, food establishments must use containers that display the words “microwave safe” or one of these symbols:




Place hot foods ONLY (140°F or higher) on a hot holding unit.

Place foods on the steam table after the water has been heated to approximately180°F.

Check the temperature frequently and enter the results on the log sheet.

Keep food covered as this will help retain heat and moisture and also protect the food from contamination.

Store food in the tray wells of the unit. Food in double stacked or over-filled trays will not receive sufficient heat.

Food in deep containers should be stirred occasionally to distrib- ute heat evenly.


Never mix freshly prepared food with foods that have been reheated.

Never reheat food in the hot holding unit, unless the unit is designed for such purpose.

Never place any food in a hot holding unit that has not been pre-heated.


Cooked potentially hazardous food items that are held for later







service must be cooled rapidly and stored in a refrigerator until ready for use. When foods are allowed to cool over a long a period of time, bacteria grow to sufficient numbers that may cause food-borne illnesses.

The NYC Health Code requires that all potentially hazardous foods prepared for later service be cooled down rapidly. This means that with- in the first two hours of cooling, the foods must be cooled from 140°F to 70°F and then go from 70°F to 41°F within an additional four hours or less. This rapid cooling requirement limits the length of time that potentially hazardous food spends in the temperature danger zone thus limiting the opportunity for growth of harmful bacteria.

Food in large, deep containers and large thick pieces of meat are difficult to cool down quickly.

Great care must be taken during the cooling of soups, sauces, gravies, stews, rice, chili, whole turkey, turkey breast and whole roast beef. The temperature of cooling foods must be monitored and document- ed with a food product thermome- ter. Take the temperature of the cooling food each hour to ensure that it is cooling within the required time. Start these measurements at 140°F.

Potentially hazardous foods that have been allowed to cool over an extended period of time- more than 2 hours when cooling from 140°F to 70°F, and more than 4 hours when cooling from 70°F to 41°F or below,

are considered contaminated and

must be discarded.

It is a fact that smaller portions of food cool down faster than larger portions. Hence, to encourage faster cooling, roasts and other large cuts of meat should be cut into portions no larger than 6 pounds. Thick foods like chili and refried beans should be poured out into shallow pans 4 inches deep. In both these cases, there is more surface area thus heat escapes faster. Cooling must take place in the refrigerator or in an ice bath. Never cool foods down by simply leaving them out at room temperature.

Foods do not cool at a constant rate. Hot food tends to cool relatively quickly while still very hot; the rate of cooling then slows greatly as the food temperature gets closer to the temperature of the refrigerator. The “cooling tracking sheet” is a good guide to show if foods are cooling properly. The food temperature must drop from 140°F to 90°F or lower by the end of first hour. If this doesn’t happen, it clearly means that the rate of cooling is too slow and foods will never reach 70°F within 2 hours.

Many food workers underestimate the amount of time it takes for foods to cool down. Under typical restau- rant kitchen refrigeration, a one-gallon container of cooked ground meat may take up to 15 hours to cool down.

For this reason, it is essential to monitor food temperatures during the cooling process.



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Do not cool foods in large deep


Cooling Tracking Sheet

pots. Pour out the contents of







large containers into much smaller




T E mperature





ones or into shallow pans 4 inches






deep with the product depth of 1






to 2 inches.
































You may combine methods



















above, e.g., cut foods into small




















pieces and place in shallow pans












in an ice-water bath.































Metal containers such a stainless









steel or aluminum are great con-









1" TO 2"

















ductors of heat. Use metal con-


Established Methods to Assist














tainers for all cooling operations.


Rapid Cooling:




















Always leave food uncovered dur-









Use an ice water bath. An ice








ing cooling; this will hasten the

water bath can be made up by

The Health Code requires that


cooling process, replace the cover


filling a sink or other large con-

potentially hazardous food that is


or lid only after the food has


tainer with ice and water. Place

cooked, cooled and reheated for hot


cooled down to 41°F.


the container of hot food into the

holding must be reheated to 165°F











ice water bath. While foods are

or above for 15 seconds within two






cooling in this ice bath, stir the

hours and held at 140°F or above






food periodically. Do not forget to

until served. This procedure destroys






replace the ice as it melts away.

the bacteria that cause food poison-












ing and prevents them from grow-












ing in the food.

Foods must be cooled in a refrig- erator or in an ice bath. They should never be allowed to cool while stored at room temperature, for example, being left out on top of a counter.

Cut large pieces of meat into smaller pieces, 6 pounds or less. Such small portions will cool rapidly. Larger pieces take longer to cool.

You may apply ice directly into food as an ingredient. Thick soups and gravies may be cooled down rapidly by adding ice directly into the food.

Use a Rapid Chill unit or a Blast chiller.

Insert an ice paddle into food and stir.

Potentially hazardous foods reheated in a microwave oven must be covered and reheated to a tem- perature of at least 190°F and allowed to stand covered for two minutes afterwards. Microwave ovens cook unevenly and standing allows the temperature to be equally distributed throughout the food.

Ready-to-eat food taken from a

commercially processed, hermetical- ly sealed container or from an intact package from a food processing plant that is subject to City, State or Federal inspection, needs to be heated to 140°F within two hours from removal from container or package and held at that tempera- ture until served.

Cooked and refrigerated food that is prepared for immediate

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service to an individual customer may be served at any temperature that customer requests.

Foods should be prepared as close to the serving time as possible and in quantities that will minimize left-

overs, thus eliminating any need for cooling and reheating.

Time as a Public Health Control

A Health Code change allows food establishments to hold potentially hazardous foods without temperature control if certain time limits and other guidelines are met. Using time only to monitor food, instead of time and temperature, is called Time as a Public Health Control. Using time as a public health control is a concept that recognizes that signifi- cant bacteria growth or toxin pro- duction are not possible within a limited time period. The Health Code allows food service establish- ments to use Time as a Public Health Control to hold hot or cold foods for a limited time without the use of heat or refrigeration. This cannot be done haphazardly.

Food establishments can now hold potentially hazardous foods without temperature control for four to six hours if they meet cer- tain time limits and other guide- lines. Before this Health Code change, potentially hazardous hot foods had to be maintained at a minimum hot temperature, and cold foods at a maximum cold tem- perature, at all times. To use Time as a Public Health Control, take the food from temperature control and:

Measure the food’s temperature. Cold food must be 41° or colder and hot food 140° or hotter when removed from temperature control. Place a label on the food and write the time the food was removed from temperature control, the

food’s starting temperature and the time it will be four hours later.

For cold food, write down the time it will be six hours later. Serve hot food within four hours or discard it.

For cold food, take the food’s temperature after four hours and write that temperature on the label. If the temperature is more than 70° at four hours, immediately discard the food. If the temperature is less than 70°, you can hold the food for an additional two hours. You must throw away any food not served within six hours.

For more information on these items, see Page 81 or visit


1.Previously cooked and refrigerated foods that will be served from a hot holding unit must be rapidly reheated to 165°F using: _______________

2.When bacteria from a raw food get into a cooked or ready-to-eat food, this is called: _______________

3.The correct cooking temperature for poultry, stuffed meat and stuffing is: _______________

4.Thick foods cool faster..: _______________

5.It is a good practice to thaw frozen foods by leaving them out on the kitchen counter overnight. TRUE FALSE

6.Hot foods placed in a refrigerator for cooling must never be covered. TRUE FALSE

7.To prevent illness, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of: _________ °F

8.Placing food on the counter overnight can be used as an effective rapid cooling technique: TRUE FALSE

9.The Health Code requires that frozen foods be properly thawed before being cooked. The exception to this rule is: _________

10.Ground meat and foods containing ground meat must be cooked to an internal temperature of: _______________

11.Clean bare hands may be used when working with ready-to-eat foods: TRUE FALSE

12.When using disposable gloves, they must be changed often to prevent contamination of food: TRUE FALSE

13.Hot holding units can be used for reheating foods as long as the temperature reaches 165°F within two hours:




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The Center for Disease Control (CDC) cites contaminated

equipment (utensils, meat slicers, cut- ting boards etc.) as a leading cause of food borne disease outbreaks.

Cleaning and sanitizing are often confused as one and the same, how- ever; these are two separate and dis- tinct processes. Cleaning is the process of removing visible contam- ination – soil, grease, food particles, dirt, etc., from any equipment or utensil. Sanitizing on the other hand, reduces harmful microorgan- isms to an acceptable level, which in turn reduces the possibility of dis- ease transmission.

It is extremely important that all food contact surfaces are clean and





Chemical Strength












Soaking / immersion

75–140° F

1 minute

50 PPM

(household bleach





With 5.25% Sodium
















Swabbing— wiping

75–140° F


100 PPM

(household bleach

spraying, pouring




With 5.25% Sodium
















Soaking / immersion


1 minute

12.5 PPM



*High temperature not














Soaking / immersion







*As specified by the manufacturer.





See label for instructions.










sanitary. Any part of utensil or equipment that comes in contact with food is called food contact sur- face. These may also include sur- faces from which food may drip, drain, or splash back on to other food contact surfaces or food. For example, when using microwave ovens, the food particles stuck on the sides or top of the interior of microwave oven may splash or drip back on to the foods being reheated or cooked in the microwave oven.

It is important to note that although most people are familiar with the concept of sanitizing, the proper procedures are often overlooked or misunderstood, especially when it comes to the chemistry and exact- ness of the process. There are two acceptable methods of sanitizing— hot water sanitizing and chemical sanitizing.

Hot water sanitizing

This method of sanitizing involves the use of hot water and a

three compartment sink. Items to be sanitized are soaked in hot water at a temperature of 170°F for at least 30 seconds. Generally, the third compartment sink is filled with hot water and heated by as a gas burner or electrical coils; water is heated to 170°F and then main- tained at that level. A long handled mesh basket is needed to soak uten- sils. A thermometer must be used to determine temperature readings.

Chemical sanitizing

This method requires even more precise knowledge and greater con- trols than the hot water sanitizing method since the effectiveness of the sanitizer is dependant upon exact amounts of chemicals used. When using commercially prepared sanitizers, simply follow the manufacturer’s instructions. The most common way of making a sanitizing solution is by using regular household bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite). In this respect, ensure that the bleach is not ultra bleach or extra strength bleach. It is also worth

noting that only pure bleach should be used without any additional additives, and it should never be mixed with detergent which will reduce the strength of the sanitizing solutions.

The following table explains how to make various sanitizing solutions using household bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite).


Chlorine Strength





of Bleach

of water







50 PPM

1/2 Oz.

1 gallon


100 PPM

1 Oz.

1 gallon


200 PPM

2 Oz.

1 gallon






The table above provides a guide to using sanitizing solutions for manual sanitizing with different chemicals.

Wiping Cloths

Sufficient number of wiping

cloths for cleaning and sanitizing must be available in every work area. Due to the fact that bacteria

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Drain and Air Dry. Do not towel dry. Toweling re-contaminates uten-
sils. Store utensils,
Sanitize utensils in third glasses and cups
compartment by use of (inverted) in a clean
hot water or a chemical dry place. sanitizer. Rinse utensils
making use of a long-handled wire basket, in clean hot water at a temperature of at least 170° for no less than 1/2 minute. Auxiliary heat is nec- essary. An alternate method is utensil immersion for a least one minute in a sanitizing solution containing at least 50 ppm available chlorine at a temperature of at least 75°F.
A floor drain is recommended in the immediate vicinity of the washing area and any area where wet pots, utensils and equipment are air drying.
Drying Facilities
Adequate facilities must be pro- vided to air-dry washed utensils and equipment.
Adequately sized drain boards, or easily moveable dish tables, fabricated in conformance with NSF standards and separate for soiled and cleaned utensils should be provided.
The drain boards and dish tables should be pitched a minimum of 1/8 inch per foot and drainage directed into a sink so as to prevent contami- nation of other areas of the dish table or drain board. Drain boards may generally be at least 36 inches to 48 inches long and 30 inches wide.
Principles of Food Preparation and Service
During food preparation, improper techniques may contaminate the product with disease-causing organisms. It is for this purpose that sanitary procedures must be observed. Listed below are some principles which should be followed.
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Approved Method for Hand-Washing Dishes and Utensils



Scrape and Pre-Rinse with warm water from a spray type nozzle all dishes and utensils promptly before food

can dry on them. This step keeps the wash water free of large food particles; loosens dried-on foods; reduces stains on dishes; saves detergent.

Wash in first com- partment with warm water at 110°–120°F using a good wash- ing compound, brush and “elbow grease.” Washing compound does not sanitize utensils.

Rinse utensils in second compartment by immer- sion in clean, warm water. Washing com- pound is rinsed off. Change the rinse water frequently. Do not rinse dishes in dirty water.

grow and multiply in moist envi- ronments, moist wiping cloths must be stored in a bucket of sanitizing solution when they are not in use. The strength of this solution must be at least 50 PPM. The sanitizing solution must be changed frequent- ly since food debris uses up the san- itizer quickly.

Ware Washing

Manual Facilities

For manual washing and sanitiz- ing of utensils, a stainless steel sink with no fewer than three compart- ments should be provided. A two compartment sink may be used for the washing and sanitizing of bar glasses. In these cases an electrical brush device should be used in con- junction with a combination deter- gent-sanitizer in the sink compart- ment used for washing utensils. The sink compartments must be large enough to accommodate the largest piece of equipment or utensil to be cleaned and each compartment should be supplied with adequate hot and cold potable running water.

In the case of equipment too large to be sanitized by immersion, the swabbing of such equipment with a solution of at least twice the concentration required for the

sanitizing solution when used for immersion is also acceptable.

Mechanical Facilities

A commercial dishwashing machine approved by NSF under Standard #3 should be provided. The installa- tion and required appurtenances should be in conformance with NSF Standard #34, the NSF Manual on Sanitation Aspects of installation of Food Service Equipment, and applic- able code requirements.

Among the specific requirements for installation of machines that use chemicals to achieve sanitization are the following:

The chemical sanitizing feeder should be approved for use with the specific make and model of the machine in question.

A visual flow indicator is suggest- ed to facilitate monitoring of the operation of the sanitizing agent feeder. Other indicating devices such as audible alarms may also be used. The flow indicating devices should be installed so as to be easily viewed by the operator.


Adequate facilities should be pro- vided for pre-flushing or pre-scrap- ing equipment and utensils.







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Food that is to be served cold should be kept cold (41°F or less) through all stages of storage, pro- cessing, and serving. Thawing of frozen foods should be accom- plished in such a manner as to keep the surface and internal temperatures of the product 41°F or less at all times. If frozen food is to be thawed in water, then cold running water is to be used.

Foods to be served hot are to be kept so that the internal and sur- face temperatures do not fall below 140°F. Care must be taken in the cooling of hot foods so they do not become contaminat- ed by dust, contact with work clothes, human contact, etc. Cooling should be accomplished as quickly as possible by the use of an ice water bath, fans, refrig- eration, etc. To determine the temperature of foods, a food ther- mometer is to be used.

Partially processed and leftover foods are to be refrigerated at 41°F or below. Just prior to plac- ing the food on the hot-holding unit they are to be removed from the refrigerator and heated rapidly so that the internal temperatures reach 165°F within two hours.

The holding of perishable foods between the temperatures of 140°F and 41°F is to be kept at a minimum.

Contact of ready-to-eat foods with bare hands is prohibited. Utensils must be used.

Do not place packing cases and cans on food work surfaces.

When it is necessary to taste foods during processing, a clean sanitized utensil should be used.

Foods are to be cooked and processed as close to the time of service as possible.

Menu planning should prevent excessive leftovers, and leftovers are not to be pooled with fresh foods during storage.

Transportation of Foods

In some food operations, it is necessary to transport food from a central kitchen (commissary) to a location where it is finally served. The food transported can be in a ready-to-eat state or a pre-cooked stage, which is finally processed at the place of service. The following practices should be observed to see that contamination is not intro- duced, or possible previous bacterial contamination not afforded means for extensive multiplication during this period.

Transporting containers and vehi- cles should be clean and of sani- tary design to facilitate cleaning.

Transporting containers and vehi- cles should have acceptable refrig- erating and/or heating facilities for maintaining food at cold (41°F or below) or hot (above 140°F) temperatures while in transit.

Food stored in transporting con- tainers and vehicles should be protected from contamination.

A minimum amount of time is to be taken for the loading and unloading of foods from trans- porting vehicles so foods will not be exposed to adverse tempera- tures and conditions.

Food Processing Techniques for

Specific Types of Service

Displayed Food

(Buffet, Smorgasbord, etc.)

Hot foods are to be kept at or above 140°F on the display table by use of chafing dishes, steam- tables or other suitable methods.

Cold foods are to be held at tem- peratures of 41°F or less before being displayed and must be maintained at 41°F or less while being held for service.

All foods displayed are subject to contamination and as such must be discarded at the conclusion of the buffet service.

Protein Type Salads

(Tuna, Ham, Shrimp, Egg, Chicken, Lobster, etc.)

These salads are always served

cold and, therefore, all salad ingre- dients except the seasoning and spices are to be chilled to 41°F or less before use. Celery, which is almost always a component of these salads, should be treated so as to minimize its bacterial content by immersing the chopped celery in boiling water for 30 seconds, using a hand strainer or colander, then- chilling immediately either by hold- ing under running cold tap water or by immersing in ice water.

Before the mixing operation, the previously washed can opener and tops of cans and jars holding salad ingredients should be wiped with a clean cloth. The salad ingredients should be prepared in, and mixed with clean, sanitized equipment (san- itary type masher, sanitary mixing bowl, stainless steel long-handled spoon or fork, mechanical tumbler- type mixer, etc.). The mixing opera- tion is to be completed as quickly as possible and the finished salad immediately served or refrigerated.

Additional Instructions for Specific Salads

Shrimp and Lobster Salad— Immerse shrimp or lobster meat in boiling water for 30 seconds and then chill to 41°F or less before preparing the salad. Fast chilling can be accomplished by

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placing the meat in shallow pans in the freezer or refrigerator or on top of cracked ice.

Egg Salad—After removing shells, use a hand strainer or colander to immerse hard-boiled eggs in boiling water for 30 sec- onds and then chill to 41F or less before preparing the salad. Chill the eggs by refrigerating or by placing them under cold running water.

Chicken and/or Turkey Salad— After removal from bones, immerse chicken or turkey meat in boiling water or boiling stock for 30 seconds and then chill to 41°F before preparing the salad. Fast chilling can be accomplished by placing the meat in shallow pans in the freezer, refrigerator or on cracked ice.

Ham Salad—Immerse diced ham in boiling water or boiling stock for 30 seconds and then chill to 41°F or less before preparing the salad. Fast chilling can be accomplished by the same method used for chicken and shrimp.

Hot Meats and Poultry Served from Steam-tables or Warming Devices

Schedule the cooking of meats so they will be completed as close as possible to desired time of service.

Upon removal from the oven or stove, cooked meats are to be kept at an internal temperature of 140°F or higher in a steam-table or other suitable device.

Maintain the water in the steam- table at a temperature in excess of 180°F. The water must be brought

to this temperature before placing any foods in the steam table. Water in the steam-table shall be kept at a depth level so as to be in contact with the bottom and upper portions of the sides of the food container.

Refrigerated ready-to-eat cooked meats, especially leftovers, gravies and stocks, are to be heated rapidly to an internal temperature of 165°F or higher before being placed in the steam-table or warming device. Hot stock or meat gravies may be used to reheat meats. Steam-tables or other warming devices should never be used to heat up cold foods.

Cautions noted previously relative to hand contact, care of equip- ment storage, and menu planning should also be followed.

Salad Preparation Guide

1)Refrigerate all salad ingredients except seasoning and spices overnight or chill to 41°F or lower before use.

2)Clean work surfaces, equipment and utensils (pots, pans, spoons, spatula, etc.) with soap and hot water, rinse with clean water, and then give a final rinse with sanitizing solution. Stainless steel utensils and equipment are preferred in prepara- tion of these foods.

3)Clean hands, fingernails, and arms thoroughly with soap and hot water and dry with single use paper towels.

4)Individuals preparing cold sal- ads must not touch the ingredients or finished product with bare hands.

5)Clean and sanitize tops of cans and jars before opening. Do not use fingers to pry off can lids or drain off liquid contents.

6)Place diced celery, including pre-cut packaged celery in a strainer and immerse in boiling water for 30 seconds, then chill to 41°F or less.

7)Use clean sanitized utensils in mixing and handling of foods. Avoid hand contact with foods.

8)Refrigerate final salad product immediately in shallow pans.

9)Salads placed in bain-marie cold plates should have a minimum internal temperature of 41°F.

10)Do not fill trays above spill line.



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The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was pio-

neered by the Pillsbury Company in the 1960’s. During this period, the space program was escalating and there was a great need to provide a supply of safe food for the astronauts.

This system involves following the flow of food through every step of the way, from the time the raw products are brought into the estab- lishment to when the finished prod- uct is ready to be served to the con- sumer. By observing food at each step of the production process, it is easy to recognize potential problems and take actions to prevent these prob- lems before they occur.

HACCP is an acronym. Its various parts are:

H = Hazard

A hazard is any condition in which foods are contaminated by microor- ganisms, foreign matter or chemi- cals and in which the microorgan- isms are allowed to grow or survive.

A = Analysis

This is the process by which a food item is studied to determine the problems that are likely to occur and how these can be prevented. Not only the ingredients are studied but the analysis includes the avail- able equipment, personnel and the population to be served.

CCP = Critical Control Point

This is the step at which action MUST be taken to prevent, reduce or eliminate a hazard. Failure to do so at this point will render that food unfit for human consumption. Critical control points will vary depending on the food ingredients, method of preparation and whether it is a hot or cold food. In every food preparation process, some

action can be taken at every step to prevent problems. However, it is at the steps that are determined to be critical control points that some action must be taken.

Some Frequently Found Hazards

Microorganisms are allowed to grow by:

Improper cooling procedures: not using a method that will reduce food from 140°F to 70°F within two hours and from 70°F to 41°F or less in an additional 4 hours.

Inadequate hot holding: holding prepared foods at less than 140°F while awaiting service.

Inadequate reheating: previously cooked foods not reheated to 165°F within two hours using a stove or an oven.

Microorganisms are allowed to survive by:

Inadequate cooking: not cooking potentially hazardous foods to the required temperatures.

Improper sanitization: dishes, utensils and equipment are not subjected to adequate tempera- tures or chemicals to destroy microorganisms.

Microorganisms, chemicals and foreign matter are allowed to contaminate food by:

Poor personal hygiene: food workers do not wash their hands before handling food and food related equipment.

Ill food workers: food workers allowed to work while suffering from illness that is transmissible through foods.

Cross-contamination: allowing ready-to-eat foods to come into contact with raw foods or conta- minated equipment.

Use of contaminated food or ingredient: using shellfish from unapproved source or meat and meat products from uninspected or unreliable suppliers.

Storing acidic foods in metal con- tainers: storing barbecue sauce in galvanized containers.

Seven Steps of HACCP

The HACCP system as described by the International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians has a series of seven inter-related steps:

1)Identify hazards and assess their severity and risks

The first step in this system is to review recipes to identify potentially hazardous foods or foods containing potentially hazardous ingredients, and set out the preparation process in a flow chart and identify the hazards that can occur at each step in the process.

2)Determine critical control point. The second step is to identify the

critical control points, that is, those steps where action MUST be taken to prevent, reduce or eliminate a hazard.

3)Institute control measures and devise criteria to establish control. (setting critical limits)

The third step is to determine the measures or the actions that are needed to prevent, reduce or elimi- nate hazards that are anticipated. This is also called the critical limit.

4)Monitor critical conrol points The fourth step is to monitor

what is being done at each critical control point to determine whether the hazards are controlled by the actions set up in the third step.

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5)Take action whenever moni- toring results indicate criteria are not met.

The fifth step is to put in place immediate corrective action if the hazards are not controlled at the critical control points.

6)Verify that the system is working as planned.

The sixth step is to review the system to ensure that it is working, that hazards are identified, correc- tive actions are taken and that a safe food product is produced.

7)Record keeping.

Record keeping is done to sup- port and revise HACCP plans as necessary.

The Food Flow Diagram

The food-flow chart and an HACCP evaluation can be applied to any potentially hazardous food item or food containing potentially hazardous ingredients. The critical control points will vary in foods depending on the ingredients, method of preparation and whether served hot or cold.

The following diagrams illustrate the process generally involved in the preparation of fried chicken and tuna salad. (see next page.)

This system is an invaluable tool when there is cooperation between management and staff. Appropriate equipment must be provided in

sufficient quantities and workers properly trained in their use. Staff must be trained to identify hazards and be provided with written proce- dures on how to prevent, reduce or eliminate them. These procedures must be reviewed periodically and updated when changes are necessary.

Inspectors from the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene are familiar with this food safety system and are willing to provide guidance.


1.HACCP is an acronym that stands for: ______ ______ ______ ______ ________.

2.What are the seven principles of HACCP? ___________, ___________, __________, __________, __________,

__________, __________.

3.HACCP is a system of _______________

4. What hazard is HACCP mostly concerned with? Physical Chemical Biological

5.What is a Critical Control Point (CCP)? ______________________________________________________________________

6.If potentially hazardous foods are left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than two hours, what corrective action should be taken? ________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Potentially hazardous foods in the refrigerator storage must be discarded when the temperature reaches _____°F


When making cold salads such as tuna, it is recommended that ingredients be pre-chilled. TRUE FALSE


Foods can be kept uncovered during the cooling step? TRUE FALSE



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Food Flow Diagram—Fried Chicken




Criteria for control

Monitoring procedure

Action when criteria not met








Unapproved source


Inspect source.

Check inspection stamp.

Return to supplier or discard.


Salmonella contamination


Temperature 41°F.

Measure temperature.



Out of temperature


No foreign matter.

Inspect for spoilage.









Insufficient refrigeration space


Check food and

Place thermometer in

Provide more refrigeration


Improper equipment temperature



refrigerated equipment

space and efficient units


Raw stored over cooked



Check food temperature

Discard food if temp. >41°F




Store cooked over raw

Date products

for > 2 hours




Practice FIFO

Observe storage practices

or at 70°F or higher








Too much out at one time


Practice batch preparation

Maintain food 41°F

Discard food if temp. >41°F


Use of contaminated equipment


Use sanitized equipment

Ensure amount of food out

for more than 2 hours





can be processed <2 hours

or at 70°F or higher








Required temp. not reached


Uninterrupted cooking

Measure temperature

Continue cooking until


resulting in survival


to 165°F

at thickest part

food temp. at thickest part


of salmonella.




is 165°F.







Hot holding

Insufficient equipment


Enough equipment

Check equipment and

If food between 140–120°F

(Same day service)

Improper holding temp.


Food at 140°F

food temperatures

more than 2 hours, discard


Patron contamination


Sneeze guards and utensils

every hour

If <2 hours -reheat to 165°F.


Slow cooling allows for


Reduce from 140 to 70°F

Measure temp. every hour

(Left overs)

growth of microorganisms


within 2 hours; Below 41°F

Keep foods uncovered




within additional 4 hours

during cooling




Small portions of meat





and shallow containers


Food temp. 140–70°F more than 2 hours, discard 70–41°F >4 hours, discard


Improper equipment


Reheat to 165°F

Check food temperature

If less than 165°F


Slow reheating


within 2 hours

every hour

continue reheating


Food in temperature danger zone


Use stove or oven









Food Flow Diagram—Tuna Salad

ProcessHazardsCCP Criteria for controlMonitoring procedure Action when criteria not met


Unapproved source


Inspect source

Check cans for defects

Return to supplier or discard

(Cans of tuna and

Defective cans


No home canned products



jars of mayonnaise)

Home prepared

















Under sewer lines


In storage area away

Observe storage





from sewer lines




Not using pre-chilled ingredients


No bare hand contact


Mixing with bare hands


Ill workers not working


Ill food workers


Cold food at 41°F or below


Use of contaminated equipment


Equipment/utensils sanitized

Maintain food 41°F

Use pre-chilled ingredients Sanitize equipment/utensils Use of gloves or utensils Observe hand washing technique Observe worker’s health

Discard food if:

temp. >41°F more than 2 hours or at 70°F or higher

Direct hand contact with ready to eat food

Ill worker is working Equipment/utensils contaminated

Cold holding

Food not held at 41°F


Food temp. 41°F

Measure food temperature

Discard food if:



(Same day service)

Ineffective refrigeration equipment


Effective refrigeration equipment

during holding every hour

temp. >41°F more than 2 hours



Patron contamination


Sneeze guards and utensils


or at 70°F or higher



















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stuck to the sides and bottom of empty containers. Another good reason sanitation helps manage flies is that fourth stage larva typically

Pest control is a major concern for the operator of a food ser-

vice establishment. This section reviews the type of pests and the means to control them.


The flying insects in the restau- rant industry include the house fly and the fruit fly. The house fly poses the gravest risk to food safety among all of the pests. Several species of house flies are categorized as “patho- genic” or “disease-causing flies”, because they have been proven to carry shigella, salmonella, e. coli and other microorganisms that cause food borne illness. Common house flies are also called “filth flies”, as most of their time is spent in or around filth, including human and animal feces. As these flies walk around this filth, the hair on the body and the legs of the fly picks up the fecal matter along with the harmful microorganisms.

Since flies cannot chew the food, they re-gurgitate or throw-up on the food to dissolve or soften it before eating again. It is estimated that one live fly may carry as many as 28 million bacteria on its body alone, and another 5 million inside. Since the filth fly can travel to all areas of a food establishment relatively quickly and easily, it has the poten- tial to contaminate many foods, food areas and food contact surfaces.

Flies: Life cycle

The life cycle of a house fly con- sists of four stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The female of the species can be seen depositing their eggs on suitable breeding materials. Often, the females can be seen in clusters of up to 50 individuals. The female house fly lays individual eggs that pile up in masses of 75 to 150 eggs; in her lifetime, a single female house fly may lay up to 900 eggs.

In warm weather, the white pupae (or maggots) emerge from their eggs in 8 to 20 hours. This larva goes through three stages of development. The total development may take one week or less during warmer seasons, but up to eight weeks during cooler times. The house fly maggot and eggs depend on damp organic mate- rial in which to develop and feed. When it has completed its last stage, the fly maggot will move to a cool dry area in which to pupate. They have been known to travel over 100 feet to locate a suitable place to pupate. The pupa transforms into an adult in as little as 3 days or as long as 5 weeks. This pupation period varies with temperature and humidity.

Flies: Habitat

House flies prefer decaying organic materials, such as garbage, animal feces or a mixture of soil and garbage on which to lay eggs. Good sanitation and refuse management are the most basic and critical step to managing these pests as this will decrease food and breeding sites. The facility areas where wastes are accumulated, dumpsters, etc. must be cleaned regularly. Trash recepta- cles need regular washing as flies may find ample breeding media

leave their breeding area and move away to some distance before they pupate. This behavior removes them from the obvious breeding zones, into less obvious hiding places for safe pupation. Therefore, frequent and thorough cleaning is an extremely important fly manage- ment tool.

Flies: Control

Vermin-proof facility. Screen windows, roof vents and other openings with 18 mesh screens. Doors should be self-closing. The back doors or delivery entrances, if present, must have a screened doors.

Drain Cleaning. It is important to realize that food establishments can become breeding grounds for the house flies, especially in cold- er months. Drains should be free of any buildup that can attract or provide breeding grounds. We must recognize the importance of humid- ity and warm temperatures for flies’ growth. Ensuring that there are no damp areas in a food facility, and improving drainage will often aid fly management. The floor drains, especially clogged drains, can pro- vide an excellent damp environ- ment for the flies to breed in. The fly breeding areas can be eliminated by keeping all drains clear and through regular sanitation.

Fly traps. Traps can be an addi- tional management tool to pre- vent solitary flies from wandering in and contaminating food areas.

Electric fly traps. There are two kinds of electric fly traps. Both kinds of traps use ultra violet light to attract flies. However, one



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electrocutes the fly through the use of electric grid, (“fly zapper”), whereas the other merely stuns and traps the fly in a glue trap affixed to the bottom of the trap (“fly catcher”). The use of fly zappers in a food establishment is a very high risk activity and prohibited, because when the flies are electrocuted, the fly parts can become airborne and fall on exposed food or food areas. The use of “fly catcher” on the other hands is relatively safe as the flies are merely stunned and trapped on the glue trap that can be replaced from time to time.

Trap placement. Proper trap placement is extremely impor- tant. Whenever using traps out- doors, they should be placed strategically to attract flies away from the facility. When installed inside, install them so that they cannot be seen from the outside. If the flies can see these traps from outside, they’ll be automati- cally attracted to the food facility.

Poisonous baits. The use of poi- sonous fly baits can be extremely dangerous in a food establishment. This product can only be used by a licensed pest control officer.

Although these are able to rapidly kill a large number of flies, their effectiveness may be short-lived. Work closely with your PCO as these applications inside the facility require special care. Remove or cover all food and ingredients. Cover food contact surfaces before application. Food contact surfaces may have to be cleaned prior to facility start up.

Air curtains. Air curtains, depend- ing on the season, are simply a blast of steady cold or hot air that flows from a device installed above doorways. Originally designed to cut down on energy costs, these

can prove to be effective against flying insects of all sorts, as the flying insects cannot pass through the air barrier. When placed and used correctly, in addition to fly- ing insects, these can also be effective in keeping out dust and hot or cold air from outside.

Fruit Flies

Fruit flies are very small flies that measure about 1/8 inch in length. The red eyes of the fruit fly are key identifying characteristics. The head and thorax are tan in color with the abdomen somewhat darker. The fruit fly breeds in as well as feeds on over-ripe fruits and vegetables, as well as moist, decay- ing organic matter.

As the name implies, fruit flies generally tend to be a nuisance when fruits and vegetables are improperly stored or allowed to decay. Garbage that contains fruit peels also will be a frequent target of these flies. When searching for fruit fly breeding sources, look for the decaying moist organic matter. Some of the obvious places to check are fruits or vegetables that are decaying or are stored outside of refrigerators. Other areas to inspect include garbage cans, underneath and behind low laying kitchen equipment. In food service estab- lishments, even small amounts of organic matter can often be found where the equipment legs, tables or cabinets touch the floor. These tiny spaces can harbor thousands of fly larvae. All small cracks and crevices at floor level need to be inspected and thoroughly cleaned.

Once, one of the breeding sources has been located, continue to look for more. Fruit flies easily follow air currents and usually have several breeding places in any struc- ture. Keep an eye on outside envi-

ronment as fruit flies will also come in from nearby dumpsters, outdoor garbage cans or even damp compost piles where fruits and vegetables are disposed. Fruit fly larvae living in fruit which is eaten can cause intestinal discomfort and diarrhea.

Fruit Flies: Control

Good housekeeping and a good sanitation program will be highly effective in the long term elimina- tion of this annoying pest. By removing the breeding areas, taking care of the trash, and ensuring proper storage of fruits and vegeta- bles, this problem can be easily eliminated.


The presence of roaches in food establishments is a serious public health problem. Roaches carry disease- causing bacteria on their bodies and deposit them on the food through their excreta and body contact. They have been linked to allergies in humans and many people with asthma are allergic to “roach dust” - roach body parts and roach droppings. Roach dust is a very strong asthma “trigger”. There are two main types of cock- roaches in NYC: German cockroach and American cockroach.

German cockroach

Adult German cockroaches are light brown except for the shield

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behind the head marked with two dark stripes, which run lengthwise on the body. Young roaches are wingless and nearly black with a single light stripe running down the middle of the back, and the adults are about 5/8 inch long. Egg capsules are light tan in color and usually yield about 36 baby cockroaches.

German cockroaches are the most common roaches found in houses and restaurants. Most cockroaches have a flattened, oval shape, spiny legs, and long, filamentous anten- nae. Immature roaches are smaller, have undeveloped wings and resem- ble the adults. They eat food of all kinds and may hitchhike into the food service establishments on egg cartons, soft drink cartons, sacks of potatoes or onions, used furniture or appliances, beer cases, etc.

Once they find their way into the food establishments, German roaches generally develop their population in kitchens and bathrooms. During the day, these roaches may be found hiding behind baseboard moldings, in cracks around cabinets, drawers or pantries, and in and under stoves, microwave ovens, refrigerators, dish- washers, and other restaurant equip- ment. The presence of German roaches during the daytime is usually an indication of a severe roach infestation. Most roaches like to live very near to the food and water source.

German cockroach females, unlike the American roaches, carry the egg capsule protruding from their abdomen until the eggs are about to hatch. During the last three or four days prior to dropping her egg case, the female German cock- roach does not seek any food or water. The case is then placed in a secluded location, with the nymphs emerging sometimes within the hour or as long as a week. A female may produce four to six cases dur-

ing her lifetime, each containing 30 to 50 eggs. Eggs hatch in 28 to 30 days, and nymphs develop in 40 to 125 days. Female roaches live about 200 days, with males living not quite as long.

American Cockroach

Adult American cockroaches are 1 and 1/2 inches long (38mm), mak- ing them the largest of the house- infesting cockroaches. With reddish brown, fully developed wings, the American cockroaches have a yel- lowish margin on the thorax or body region behind the head. When disturbed, they may run rapidly and adults may fly. Immature cock- roaches resemble adults except that they are wingless.

American cockroaches generally live in moist areas. They prefer warm temperatures (around 85°F) and do not tolerate cold tempera- tures. In food establishments, these cockroaches live in basements, around pipes and sewers, and may move outdoors into yards during warm weather. These cockroaches are common in basements, crawl spaces, cracks and crevices of porches, foundations, and walkways adjacent to buildings. Because of their fond- ness for sewers, large populations of American cockroaches will be seen in many cities after heavy rains or flooding. Due to the large size and slow development of American cockroaches, large infestations of these insects are not common with- in food establishments. However, during certain times of the year, these cockroaches may move inside food establishments from outside sources. For example, in winter these cockroaches may move indoors, seeking warmer tempera- tures and food. Cockroaches may enter food establishment through sewer connections, under doors, around utility pipes, air ducts, or other openings in the foundation.

Cockroaches: Control

It is difficult to prevent the inva- sion of a food establishment with insects, especially roaches that may come from an adjoining building or in packages delivered to the premis- es. The emphasis must be placed on elimination of harborage and breed- ing places within the establishment as well as extermination.

All cracks and holes in the floor, walls and ceilings should be elimi- nated by filling with cement, plaster, putty or plastic wood. Seams in fix- tures and equipment should receive the same treatment.

Equipment and fixtures should be placed flush against the wall and floor; if not, then a sufficient dis- tance away from the wall and above the floor to facilitate cleaning around it.

All potential insect-breeding places, such as rubbish, debris and stagnant water, should be eliminat- ed. Garbage should be kept in tight- ly covered metal cans, and the cans should be thoroughly cleaned after being emptied. The room, in which garbage is kept, prior to removal, should be constructed of impervi- ous washable material, preferably cement, and should have facilities to wash garbage cans. If this room can be refrigerated, the cold temperature will prevent insects from breeding, and odors from decomposing garbage will be reduced.

Sanitation and good housekeep- ing are very important factors in insect control. The food establish- ment and equipment therein should be completely cleaned each night before closing, not only for good sanitation, but to remove all grease, food encrustation, and food particles on which the insects can feed.

In addition, roaches can be destroyed with effective insecticides applied by a licensed pest control operator.



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Pesticide Use. Operators of food service establishments must ensure that the establishment remains free of pests and must use the methods described in the sections above to prevent pest infestation. Additionally, they may use glue traps and baited traps. However, they may not use chemical pesticides of any kind in the establishment, unless they also possess certification as a “commercial applicator”. This applies even to aerosol cans of pesticides, available at most grocery stores.

Cockroaches and Allergies.

Cockroaches, particularly German cockroaches, have been identified as the most common source of cock- roach allergy in the USA. There are close to a dozen proteins linked to cast skins, droppings or frass or whole bodies that can cause allergies in humans. The allergens are heat stable. One study showed that 40- 60% of people with asthma also have a serious allergy to cockroaches.

Norway Rat

The Norway rat (rattus norvegi- cus), the most common rodent in New York City, is a burrowing mammal. A burrow is a hole or tun- nel dug into the ground by the rodent to create a space suitable for habitation. This small mammal is not indigenous to the United States, but is believed to have come on the ships from Central Asia around 1700s. Adult Norway rats weigh an average of about 1 pound. Their fur is coarse and the upper body is usu- ally brownish or reddish-gray, while the belly is whitish-gray. Blackish rats may also be present in some locations.

Norway Rat: Habitat

The Norway rats live closely with people. They make their nests by burrowing in the ground. Their

burrows can usually be found in parks or near vegetation, under buildings and other structures, beneath concrete slabs, along stream banks, in garbage dumps, and at other locations where suitable food, water, and shelter are present.

They may also make their burrows beneath sidewalks and along the building foundations. Additionally, an unkempt open space with clutter may also encourage rats to make their burrows. However; being opportunistic, they will also make their nests in between walls, and other open spaces.

The rat burrows are typically located within 25 to 125 feet radius of the food source. Most rats

remain in and around the food establishments and yards which pro- vide their necessities, and unless they are disturbed, they do not move to greater distances.

Norway Rat: Habits

Norway rats can and will eat pretty much any food. However, when given a choice, they select a nutritionally balanced diet.

Their preferable diet includes meats, fish, grains, nuts and cereals. Water is essential for their survival and they require about ½ to 1 ounce of water daily. The water require- ment, however, is dependant on the type of food being consumed. Moist foods, whenever available, will lower

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their water need. They can easily detect stale and contaminated foods, and often choose fresh items over contaminated ones.

Tip: Pay close attention to garbage as it offers a very balanced diet and also satisfies their water needs.

A typical city rat living outdoors has a maximum life span of about one year. In captivity, they may live for up to 3 years. The total time for gestation is roughly 21 to 22 days and litters of 8 to 12 pups are born. Newborn pups grow rapidly. They can eat solid food when they’re 2 to 3 weeks old. They become com- pletely independent at about 3 to 4 weeks and become sexually active at 3 months of age, sometimes as early as 8 weeks.

Female Norway rats may come into heat every 4 or 5 days, and they may mate within a day after a litter is born. The average female rat has 4 to 7 litters per year and may reproduce as many as 60 to 70 or more offspring annually. Even though most of these pups will not survive, but on average, about 20 or so are successfully weaned.

Like most rodents, Norway rats are nocturnal. They usually become active at night, when they start looking for food and water. However, rats may become active at day time when rat population is high; their nests are disturbed (due to rain or construction), or when they are starving.

Rats do not see the same way as we do. They have poor eyesight and cannot see beyond 2–3 feet. They’re also color blind. However, their other senses are more acute and they depend more on their hearing and their excellent senses of smell, taste and touch. Norway rats are very sensitive to motion up to 30-50 feet away.

Rats use their sense of smell to

locate food items and apparently to recognize other rats. An average rat

urinates over 100 times a night and each micro droplet of urine con- tains various markers or messages. In this manner, the Norway rats, relying on their sense of smell, can recognize pathways, locate foods from previous excursions, members of the opposite sex who are ready to mate, and differentiate between members of their own colonies and strangers from other rat colonies.

Norway rats use hearing to locate objects to within a few inches. This highly developed sense combined with their touch sensitivity can pin- point the location of the object to within six inches. Norway rats have a highly developed sense of touch due to very sensitive body hairs and whiskers which they use to explore their environment.

Rats feel very much at home in food service establishments due to the familiarity with the areas. Their movement in an area relies heavily on their senses of touch and smell to direct it through movements learned by exploration and knowl- edge of its terrain.

Rodents, due to their poor vision, also like to rub their bodies against a wall when moving from one loca- tion to another. This fact can aid in designing control of this pest, as the grease tracks can be located along floor-wall junctions. Their sense of taste is also highly developed and they can detect impurities or conta- minants in the food quite easily. This fact must be kept in mind when selecting appropriate baits.

House Mouse

The house mouse (mus musculus) is a small and slender rodent. When fully grown, an adult mouse weighs about 2 – 5 ounces. The fur of a house mouse is generally grayish- brown. This mammal lives very closely with the humans.

House Mouse: Habitat

The house mouse lives in and around food service establishments, homes, as well as in any cluttered locations. They are capable of living outdoors, however; they must seek shelter indoors when cold weather arrives.

They prefer seeds and grains, although may eat a variety of differ- ent foods. These are very curious mammals and are not hesitant to sample a different variety of food items. They are considered “nibblers” as they nibble on every food in their path, thus leading to the contami- nation and destruction of many food items. A mouse only needs 2–3 grams of food daily and can survive on very little of water as most of the water is derived from the food it eats.

Like the rats, house mice are also nocturnal. However, it’s not uncom- mon to see them foraging during the day time. Their appearance during the day time does not necessarily indicate an infestation. Like the rats, mice also have poor eyesight, and depend more on their senses of smell, taste and touch.

When shelter inside the food establishment becomes scarce, house mice can also dig and may burrow into the ground, in yards or around building structures. Typically, a nest consists of fibrous material in the shape of a ball. These nests are usually 4 to 6 inches in diameter.

Litters of 4 or 6 are born 19 to 21 days after mating. They grow rapidly and after 2 to 3 weeks, they begin to make short trips from the nest and start eating solid food. Mice are sexually mature as early as when they are 6 to 10 weeks old. Mice may breed year-round and a female may have 5 to 10 litters per year. Mouse populations can there- fore grow rapidly under good conditions.



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Typically, a mouse normally trav- els no more than 10–30 feet from its nest to the source of food. They do not compete well with rats and therefore, are not likely to be pre- sent in areas frequented by rats. If a food establishment has a rat prob- lem in the basement, it is unlikely that a mouse problem will also exist in the basement. They are more likely to occupy the kitchen on the first floor, living in spaces between walls and baseboards.

One area that is constantly over- looked when rodent survey is con- ducted is the drop ceiling. The ceil- ing with its insulation provides an ideal nesting area for colonies of mice. A mouse constantly explores its environment, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter and other elements in their domain. They quickly detect new objects in their environment, but they do not fear new objects.

Rodent Control: Integrated Pest

Management (IPM)

The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a system that combines preventive and control measures to eliminate pest infestations. Each year millions of dollars are spent on costly and dangerous pesticides to combat rodent infestations which can also expose humans as well as pets to these poisonous substances. The IPM system combats the rodent problem by using a combination of different techniques, thus reducing exposure to dangerous chemicals.

Integrated Pest Management works on three principles:

Starve them

Build them out

Destroy them

However, for IPM to be successful, the key support principle is the thorough inspection of the facilities to identify the problem. A thorough

inspection of your facility will give you a better indication of the nature and the severity of the infestation, as well as the common routes taken by the rodents. This will allow you or the licensed pest control officer to set up proper traps and baits to intercept them.

There are a lot of signs that could indicate the nature and severity of the problem. These include:

Rodent droppings. The physical state of the droppings may or may not indicate recent or old infestation. Soft, moist droppings usually indicate live rodent activi- ty, while hard and dry ones indi- cate old. However, this may not work all the time. The location of the droppings, whether in dark corner or near an area with plenty of sunlight or heat may affect the appearance of scat. Amount of droppings indicate heavy or light infestation. The size of pellets will show if the rodents are large or small; and if different sizes are present, it indicates litters of young are being reared.

Gnawing. Rodents spend about two percent of their life gnawing on various materials. This is done to grind down the front gnawing teeth that constantly grow.

Rodent Run. Rat runs are diffi- cult to tell by appearance if they are new or old. Use white chalk or paint on suspected rat runs. The rodents are creatures of habit and will continue to use the same pipe or beam or floor-wall junc- tion. It will leave marks caused by dirt or grease on feet or fur.

Other signs include burrows, run- ways, rodent odors, urine stains, rodent sounds, and live or dead rodents.

Starve Them

The main purpose of rodents’ entry in a food establishment is to

seek food and water. There are many sources of food in a food establish- ment and by depriving rodents of food and water; we can significantly reduce their population.

The food storage containers must be made of material that is impervi- ous to rodent gnawing. Food con- tainers made of metal, glass or smooth hard plastic is ideal for storage of food items.

There are many opportunities for food particles to spill over on to the floors, behind equipment and other hard to reach places during a nor- mal workday in a typical food estab- lishment. Every effort must be made to pick up spilled-over food to ensure that rodents will not have a steady supply of food. Rats need water for survival; eliminating any standing water and other sources of water will also help control their popula- tions.

Improperly stored garbage also

provides a steady source of food for rodents. All garbage containers must be made of metal or hard smooth plas- tic with tight fitting lids. Garbage removal must be done on a daily basis.

Mice need even smaller amounts of food and very little water to sur- vive. They can acquire most of the water from the food. Although it is difficult to completely eliminate all food. However, an abundant supply of food will certainly lead to a big- ger infestation.

Build them out

One of the reasons rodents exist in buildings is because of favorable conditions that permit them to hide, nest and breed. They will not remain where safe shelter or food is unavailable.

To combat infestation in your premises, it is necessary to be able to recognize rodent harborage or hiding

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places, both actual and potential as they are the conditions favoring rodent life and propagation.

There are three general types of rodent harborage:




Temporary Rodent Harborage

These are conditions arising out of failure to maintain premises in a clean and sanitary condition, or faulty methods of operation, house- keeping or storage of stock.

Examples of temporary rodent harborage include:

Mass storage of office supplies and old records, materials for repairs, food products or other store mer- chandise; boxes, crates, or cartons that are left undisturbed for peri- ods of time and not rotated in use (using up older stock first).

Unused or obsolete fixtures or equipment, especially those hav- ing drawers, compartments or other hollow enclosures.

Miscellaneous junk, trash, odds and ends placed in closets, cellars, boiler rooms or out-of-the-way places, or portions of premises not in daily use having very little or no light.

Garbage cans left uncovered overnight or having poorly fitting covers or in a defective, leaking condition.

Passageways used in transporting or storing garbage cans for removal, with spilled particles of food on floors, especially in corners.

Accumulations of rubbish at bot- tom of air-shafts, dumbwaiters or elevator shaft pits, under sidewalk or cellar window gratings or other parts of premises not cleaned regularly.

Methods to prevent temporary rodent harborage include:

Unused materials should be stored neatly and away from walls, allow- ing enough space for an individual to pass through during cleaning and should preferably be stored sufficiently high above the floor to permit cleaning underneath. The amount stored should be mini- mized as much as possible, and it should be disturbed or its position changed at least every three weeks to prevent nesting of rodents.

Avoid mass storage by arranging in rows with 2’ wide aisles. If stock is placed on shelves, raise the lowest shelf about 6” to 8” above the floor.

Promptly clean up food scraps that spill from garbage cans or fall under or behind slop sinks, equipment and stock bins.

Rodents feed more readily on these than on bagged or packaged food supplies. Store all garbage in non-leaking metal receptacles with tight-fitting lids.

Place soiled linen into suitable containers. Maintain clean and sanitary conditions at all times.

Incidental Rodent Harborage

These are conditions arising from installation of fixtures or equipment incidental to their use on the premises, in such a manner that hollow spaces, enclosures, and inac- cessible places are formed.

Examples of incidental rodent harborage include:

Fixtures, refrigerators, ovens, etc. not installed flush against walls but leaving a small space that is too narrow for proper inspection and cleaning.

Narrow spaces left between bot- toms of counters, or other fix- tures or equipment and the floor.

Small spaces existing between ceilings and tops of fixtures, clothes lockers, refrigerators, clos- ets and cabinets, large overhead pipes and ventilating ducts sus- pended a few inches from ceiling.

Hollow partitions (double wall space).

Hollow furniture or fixtures with inaccessible enclosures.

Boxed-in casings or sheathing around pillars, pipes, radiators, etc. forming hollow enclosures.

Bottom shelves, stock platforms or skids that are not set directly on the floor but allow a space of a few inches to exist underneath.

Defective insulated sections of large refrigerators or pipe coverings (hollow enclosed spaces formed by damage to cork or asbestos).

Loose foods stored in low, thin, wooden food bins, boxes, cartons, burlap bags, etc.

Partially enclosed spaces behind open metal grills used on housing of motors or other mechanical equipment.

Methods to prevent incidental rodent harborage include:

Eliminate narrow, inaccessible spaces behind fixtures or equip- ment by placing flush against wall or leaving a space wide enough for inspection and cleaning.

Solidly block out narrow spaces underneath, or install flush on floors or raise high enough for cleaning.

Avoid providing undisturbed rat runways in narrow space between ducts or long hoods and the ceil- ing. Ducts should be placed flush against ceilings and preferably be round in shape, instead of square.



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Remove decorative boxing-in around radiators, columns, etc. to avoid hollow enclosures, or protect with metal flashing extending at least 6” above the floors.

Repair and securely close all breaks in insulation around pipes, refrigerators or cooling cabinets.

Line interiors of wooden bins with sheet metal, or store foods in rodent-proof containers.

Eliminate hollow spaces formed by false bottoms in counters, lockers, cabinets, etc.

Alter hollow fixtures so that enclo- sures are exposed for easy cleaning.

Entrance and cellar doors that are not tight-fitting or not provided with a proper door sill or saddle, permitting openings over 1/4” to exist and not protected around gnawing edges with metal flash- ing at least 6” above floor level.

Openings around ceiling or floor beams, or risers, where they pass through partitions.

Openings of fans, ventilators, and louvers on the outside of buildings, or fancy metal grills with openings over 1/4”. Cellar floors of earth, enabling rodents to burrow underneath.

in cellar foundation walls. Find all openings before rodents do. Inspect regularly and repair weak spots before actual breaks occur.

Block out hollow spaces under

raised wooden floors with con-

crete. Refrigerators, ranges, ovens,

etc. should be solidly based on

concrete. Protect entrance, cellar

doors and windows with metal

flashing around gnawing edges

and maintain in good repair.

Replace earthen cellar floors with

a floor of concrete at least 3” to

4” thick and tied securely into

foundation walls.

Securely anchor window and

Structural Rodent Harborage

These conditions are due to design or construction of a building that are defective from a rodent- proof standpoint or that developed during occupancy from failure to make proper repairs or to use rodent-proof materials.

Examples of structural rodent harborage include:

Openings made in outside building walls, around beams, or in interior walls, floors or ceiling for installa- tion of pipes, cables or conduits. They are made by plumbers, elec- tricians or other workmen. The openings are usually larger than necessary and the unused por- tions of holes are not closed up. Holes, large cracks, loose bricks or other openings in floors, walls or ceilings are other examples.

Hollow spaces in double walls, between floor and ceiling of lower story, and in double ceilings of cellars.

Enclosed hollow spaces formed by sheathing the undersides of stairways, by installation of false floors in toilets, or by raised wooden floors over earthen floors of cellars.

Methods to prevent structural rodent harborage include:

Promptly seal up all holes or openings around pipe lines or cables where they enter the building, with concrete mortar or cement mortar to which ground glass may be added for better results.

Place tight-fitting metal collars or flanges around pipes and risers. Provide escutcheon plates for all risers where they pass through floor slabs, unless same are water- proof by pockets of mastic.

Seal up all openings around beams.

Avoid using double-wall type construction with hollow interior spaces, or hollow tile block, hol- low cement block, or similar material for partitions or walls of storage compartments or in cellars.

Inspect all parts of premises for holes and seal every opening in walls and ceilings with cement plastered smooth. Move away fix- tures and stock that may hide holes in floors and use a flashlight so as not to miss any. Look for loose bricks, cracks or other openings

door screens to the frames.

Destroy Them

The use of toxic pesticide in a food environment is a dangerous and risky process. This should only be used as a last resort and even then, only with the help of a licensed pest control officer. The New York City health Code makes it illegal to use pesticides in a food establishment unless used or applied by a licensed pest control applicator.

Non- toxic Control: Traps

Use of traps is advantageous for many reasons:

Eliminates the exposure to harmful toxic substance

Easy to dispose the captured rodent

Results can be quantified

Prevents having to deal with odors from dead rodents in hard to reach places

There are many types of traps, they include the following:

Snap Traps. Among them, the most useful type of trap is the snap trap. However, for it to be effective, following guidelines should be useful:

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Use large number of traps at one time.

Do not set up traps for several days to allow rats to become acclimated with the traps, as rats are very skeptical of new things.

When ready to set the traps, use the “mass trapping” tech- nique. In this method, a large number of traps are set up at once so that a large number of rats can be caught before they become “trap-shy”.

The type of baits used is also an important consideration. It is best to use food items that the rodents constantly go after in the food establishment as these foods are more desirable to rodents and also are part of their diet. However, foods high in protein also make good bait. The rodents, especially during the mating season, need a pro- tein rich diet which is usually hard to get. Therefore, using peanut butter, cheese, ground meat or deli meats is usually found to be effective bait.

Stale bait must be replaced with fresh bait as rats can detect older foods and avoid it.

Live Traps. Live traps are large cages or boxes that have only one- way entry. The rodents looking for food get trapped inside. Dubbed as a more humane method, a large number of rodents can be caught at one time.

Glue boards.Contrary to the popular belief, the use of glue boards has the lowest success rate. Glue boards should only be used as part of the pest control survey. Typically, these traps end up catching baby mice and rat pups. This is because rodents’ whiskers or vibrissae are highly developed sensory devices and can usually

detect the sticky substance on the glue traps and avoid it. The younger populations of rodents haven’t fully developed this sense, and hence get caught.

Important note regarding the proper disposal of rodents when caught. Safety precautions must be taken to ensure personal safety of the person handling the dead rodents. For example, avoid han- dling dead rodents with bare hands to prevent contact with diseased animals; when cleaning rodent exc- reta, spray the area with sanitizing solution prior to sweeping; clean and sanitize any exposed food con- tact surfaces.

Toxic Control: Pesticides

The use of pesticide in the food environment is a very dangerous and risky proposition. The New York City Health Code does not permit the use of pesticide in a commercial facility unless done by a licensed pest control officer. Therefore, it is important to obtain the services of a reputable pest control officer (PCO). Be wary of PCOs that promise a quick fix.

Dangers of Tracking Powder

The use of rodenticide tracking powder is banned in a commercial food establishment. The rodenticide tracking powder has the same ingre- dients as any other bait being used. However, because the ingredients are mixed with talcum powder or other similar powder carrier, the concentration of toxins are many times higher; in some cases as high as 40 to 50 times. The tracking powder is not absorbed or inhaled by the rodent, rather, the powder sticks to the feet and the fur of the rodent. As the rodent starts groom- ing itself or others, it ingests the anticoagulant in the tracking powder and because the concentration is much higher, dies within a day or two.

Pesticide Use in Food Service


Are you harming yourself, your employees, or your customers? You may be without realizing it, if you are using pesticides improperly. You may also be breaking the law.

New York State law requires that anyone using pesticides, except farmers or homeowners on their own property, be certified as a “commercial applicator” with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC). This applies even to aerosol cans of pesticides, available at most grocery stores.

Persons applying pesticides in restaurants, institutional kitchens or other food service operations need special certification from DEC’s Bureau of Pesticides Management.

All pesticides are toxic. After all, their purpose is to kill roaches, rats and other pests. Proper use of pesti- cides is essential to everyone’s safety.

If pesticides are used improperly, food, utensils or other food-prepa- ration equipment can become cont- aminated. Improper handling of pesticides can also lead to direct expo- sure through the nose, mouth or skin. The result may be future health prob- lems for those exposed.

Health Department Sanitarians check for proper labeling, storage and use of pesticides during routine inspec- tions of food service establishments.



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Pesticides Do’s and Don’ts

DO be concerned about your health and safety, and that of your employees and customers.

DODOask your pest controller for proof of certification by DEC’s Bureau of Pesticides Management.

DO report uncertified pest controllers to a DEC pesticide inspector at the DEC Regional Office.

DO make a pest’s life difficult by maintaining extra-clean conditions and by eliminating possible pest entry routes.

DON’TDON’Thire an uncertified pest controller.

DON’T apply any pesticide in a food service operation yourself unless you are certified.

DON’T permit the application of pesticides while food is being prepared or served, or in an area where utensils, unprotected food or containers are stored.

For More Information

To learn more about pest control, or for details on how to become certified to apply pesticides, contact the DEC regional pesticide office.

Rodent/Insect Control Summary

Control Rats and Mice—

Get rid of their nesting places. Clean up all piles of rubbish, inside and outside the premises.

Build them out. Block all possi- ble rat entrances. Rat-proof foun- dations.

Starve them out. Protect food at night. Keep garbage containers closed. Do a thorough clean-up job.

Kill them. Use traps for tempo- rary control.

Control Flies—

Get rid of their breeding places. Control the sources.

Keep them out. Screen doors and windows properly. See that all doors open out and are self-closing. Install overhead fly fans or air curtains.

Do a good job of housekeep- ing. Keep foods covered. Keep

garbage containers sealed. Remove food accumulations promptly.

Kill them. Hire a licensed pest control operator.

Control Roaches and other insects—

Be alert to first signs of infesta- tion. Destroy contaminated foods.

Do a good job of housekeeping and storage. Keep foods covered. Keep garbage containers sealed. Re- move food accumulations promptly.

Kill them. Hire a licensed pest control operator.



The presence of insects and rodents or conditions that allow them to flourish, are among the most common violations cited during food service establishment inspections. Pests can contaminate food, making customers sick. The use of chemicals to control pests creates other problems: pesticides can cling to surfaces and many are dangerous. To keep restaurants insect- and rodent-free, the Health Code now requires establishments to:

1.Clean up refuse and other material in or on which pests hide or nest.

2.Seal cracks, gaps or holes that permit easy movement of pests.

3.Eliminate water leaks, drips and standing water as these allow pests to thrive.

4.Install door sweeps or other barriers on doors leading to the outside. Any gap must be less than an eighth of an inch to prevent entry.

5.Throw out food garbage, clean food scraps and grease stains, and store food in containers that close tightly.

6.Inspect the premises and incoming packages each day for signs of pests.

7.Hire a pest management professional licensed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to examine the premises at least monthly. Keep records showing the professional’s name, address, DEC license number, the services provided and the effective date of the contract.

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1.Insecticides and rodenticides can only be applied in a restaurant by the supervisor of food operations?


2.The best method of eliminating flies from an establishment is to use an electric fly trap. TRUE FALSE

3.List four potential sources of food for rodents ___________, ___________, ___________, ____________.

4.When food is unavailable to mice that have infested a restaurant, they will ______________________

5.The sighting of rodents during day time may be an indication of rat infestation? TRUE FALSE

6.What are some of the signs of rodents or rodent infestation? ___________, ___________, ___________.

7.Fly strips are not useful in eliminating insect breeding places? TRUE FALSE

8.Rats are known to enter buildings through openings that are as small as: ___________.

9.In insect control, which measures are useful in keeping them out? ___________, ___________, ___________.

10.Fresh rat droppings in a food establishment is a critical violation? TRUE FALSE


Toilet rooms should be completely enclosed and have tight fitting, self- closing, solid doors. They should be vented to the outside by an opera-

Hand Washing Facilities

Provide a separate hand washing sink, dispensed hand soap, hand drying device or disposable towels, and waste receptacle for each food preparation area, utensil washing area and toilet room. (Hand-wash- ing sinks must be located within 25 feet of each food preparation, food service and warewashing area, and in or adjacent to employee and patron bathrooms.) The use of a common sink for food preparation or for washing equipment and/or utensils as well for hand washing is not permitted.

Each hand washing sink should be provided with hot and cold running water preferably tempered by means of a mixing valve or a combination faucet. It is recommended that any self-closing or metering faucet should be designed to provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

Determining Hot Water Supply


The hot water supply should be sufficient to satisfy the continuous and peak hot water demands of the establishment. For purposes of esti- mating the hot water generating capability, assume a supply tempera-

ture requirement of 115°F to each fixture and 180°F to mechanical dishwashing machines.

Hot water for hand washing should not exceed 115°F.

Hot water for mechanical dish- washers should be 140°F–165°F for washing and 180°F for sanitizing.

The water temperature for manual hot water sanitization should be at least 170°F.

Toilet Facilities

Toilet facilities should be installed according to local plumbing ordi- nances. They should be conveniently located and should be accessible to employees and/or patrons at all times.

All food service establishments with a seating capacity of 20 or more except those in operation on or before December 5, 1977 must provide appropriately identified and main- tained toilet facilities for their patrons. Suitable public notice of any such alternate facility must be conspicu- ously posted within the food estab- lishment.

Employee toilet facilities may be used by patrons only if they do not pass through a food preparation or utensil washing area to access them and there are separate facilities for each sex.

ble, screened window or mechanical device. Fixtures should be designed to be easily cleanable.

Plumbing and Cross Connections

Plumbing must be sized and installed according to applicable codes. There should be no cross connection between the potable water supply and any non-potable or questionable water supply. Where non-potable water sys- tems are permitted for purposes such as air conditioning and fire protec- tion, the non-potable water must not contact food, potable water or equip- ment that contacts food or utensils directly or indirectly. The piping of any non-potable water system should be clearly identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that car- ries potable water.

Submerged Inlet Protection

The potable water system must be installed to preclude the possibil- ity of back-flow. Devices should be installed and maintained to protect against back-flow and back siphonage at all fixtures and equip- ment unless an air gap is provided.

The air gap, when used, must be at least twice the diameter of the water supply inlet, but not less than 1”, and exist between the water supply inlet and the fixture’s flood-level rim.



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Vacuum breakers

A primary concern for the safety of potable water is from cross-connections. A cross-connection is any connection between potable water supply and sewage, or other contaminated water. This connection allows backflow of contaminated water into potable water systems. In order to prevent against this type of contamination,

Indirect Waste Connections

Open Waste


a vacuum breaker must be installed. For instance, a cross connection is made when a hose is attached to a threaded hose bib, and the other end is left submerged in a puddle of waste water. A hose bib vacuum breaker only allows water to flow from the potable water source and would prevent the backflow.

Hose Bib



The same cross connection may also exist between potable water supply and any kitchen equipment that is directly connected. For example, coffee machine, espresso, ice maker, dishwashers, potato peel- ers, etc. An atmospheric vacuum breaker is needed to prevent conta- mination from these equipment to back into potable water supply.




Other fixtures and equipment requiring back siphonage protection include:

Water closets

Hose connections


Garbage grinders

Drains–Indirect Waste

There should be no direct connec- tion between the sewage system and any drains originating from equipment in which food or food utensils are placed. An unobstructed vertical air space between the lowest opening of the fixture drain and the flood-level rim of the receiving receptacle or drain opening must be provided. The space must be twice the diameter of the discharge opening or 1 inch, whichever is greater. Unidirectional check valves or equivalent devices are not acceptable for this purpose. Indirect sewer connections should be located within 2 feet of the equipment which it is intended to protect and on the inlet side of the grease interceptor and “p” trap.

Fixtures and equipment requiring indirect waste connections include:

Food preparation and ware- washing sinks;

Refrigerators and freezers; Ice makers and storage bins; Steam tables and kettles; Dipper wells.

A grease interceptor should be installed in the waste line leading from pot sinks, floor drains receiving waste from soup or stock kettles, food scrap sinks, scullery sinks and the scraper section of commercial dishwashers to prevent grease from entering the drainage system.

Interceptors should remove an average of at least 90% of the grease or other extractable matter in the waste water and should conform to the requirements of the NYC Dept. of Environmental Protection, Industrial Waste Control Section.


Permanently fixed artificial light sources should be installed to pro- vide at least 50 foot candles of light on all food preparation surfaces and at equipment or utensil-washing work levels. All other areas, includ- ing dining areas during cleaning operations, should be provided with at least 20 foot candles at 30 inches from the floor.

Shielding such as plastic shields, plastic sleeves with end caps, shatter- proof bulbs and/or other approved devices should be provided for all artificial lighting fixtures located over, by, or within food storage, preparation, service and display facilities. Sheilding should also be provided where utensils and equip- ment are cleaned and stored, partic- ularly where they may be exposed to extremes in temperature variation.

Heat lamps, where used, should be protected against breakage by a shield surrounding and extending beyond the bulb, leaving only the face of the bulb exposed.

Gas-Fired Hot Water Heaters

Gas-fired hot water heaters produce carbon monoxide as a waste prod- uct. This is an insidious gas that can

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result in death when breathed, thus it is imperative that this gas be vented to the outside. Important considera- tions when dealing with a gas-fired hot water heater are:

The vent pipe must be made of rigid material and installed at an upward slope then led to the out- side air.

The gas flame should be properly adjusted so that it burns in a bluish color.

The heater must be tested for back draft at the wind diverter. A severe back draft can extinguish the pilot light and cause an accu- mulation of gas that can result in an explosion. Also, any blockage can also cause carbon monoxide to accumulate inside the facility.


All establishments shall be ade-

quately ventilated to prevent excessive heat, steam, condensation, vapors, odors, smoke and fumes. Ventilation to the outside air must comply with applicable law and regulation and must not create a nuisance or unlawful emission. Intake and exhaust ducts must be constructed and maintained to prevent dust, dirt or other conta- minants from entering the establish- ment. Mechanical ventilation must be installed in rooms where odors, vapors or fumes originate. Ventilation hoods and devices must be constructed and installed to prevent grease or con- densation from collecting on walls or ceilings and from dripping into food or onto food-contact surfaces.

All hoods should meet NSF Standard #2 requirements and be designed, constructed and installed in conformance with the National Fire Protection Association Bulletin #96.

*NOTE: The installation and operation of ventilation systems is regulated by the NYC Department of Buildings, the NYC Fire Department and the

NYC Department of Environmental Protection. For additional information regarding these installations and other requirements, includ- ing ventilation hoods, ducts and fire suppression systems (ANSUL), you should contact these agencies.

Cooking equipment ventilation hoods and devices should be designed and installed to prevent grease or condensation from collecting on walls, ceilings, and fire suppression supply piping, and from dripping onto food or food contact surfaces.

Make-up air intakes should be screened (bird screen) and filtered to prevent the entrance of dust, dirt, insects and other contaminating material. Where the introduction of make-up air will cause condensation, drafting or interfere with the exhaust or vapor capture efficiency of the hood, the make-up air should be tempered. A tempered make-up air system may be required if the exhaust is greater than 1,500 cfm.

The installation of fire suppres- sion system supply piping in the unfiltered air space in exhaust hoods should be limited to vertical runs to minimize grease collection. Exposed piping must be cleanable.

Hot water sanitizing dishwashing machines should be provided with adequate ventilation, that is sized according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

Utility Facility

At least one utility sink or curbed cleaning facility with a floor drain should be provided for cleaning mops and for the disposal of mop water or similar liquid wastes.


The dry storage space required depends upon the menu, number of meals, quantities purchased and

frequency of delivery. Storage rooms should be located adjacent to food preparation areas and convenient to receiving.

Ideally, the storage rooms should be free of un-insulated steam and water pipes, water heaters, trans- formers, refrigeration condensing units, steam generators or other heat producing equipment. The area should be well ventilated and main- tained at 50°F to 70°F.

Shelving may be constructed of suitably finished wood but prefer- ably of non-corrosive metal or plastic. Approved food containers with tight fitting covers and scoops should be used for storing and dispensing bulk items or broken lots. Food contain- ers should not be stored under exposed or unprotected sewer lines. Items should be spaced from walls sufficiently and raised at least 6 inches above the floor to allow for adequate maintenance and inspec- tion of the facility.

Facilities should be provided to store cleaned and sanitized utensils and equipment above the floor to protect them from splashing, dust, overhead plumbing or other conta- mination.

Poisonous and toxic materials should be stored in areas designated for such use and for no other pur- pose, or in a storage area outside the food, equipment and utensil storage area. Bactericides and cleaning com- pounds should never be stored with insecticides, rodenticides, or other poisonous materials. Insecticides and rodenticides should be kept in their original containers.

Dressing Room and Lockers

Rooms or areas separate from food preparation, storage or service areas, and separate from utensil washing or storage areas, should be



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provided if employees will routinely change clothes within the establish- ment.

Lockers or other suitable storage facilities should be located in dress-

ing areas for employees to store their personal belongings.

Garbage Storage

Garbage and waste grease should be placed in durable, easily clean-

able, watertight, nonabsorbent, rodent- and insect-proof containers with tight fitting lids. An area for storage of these containers and facil- ities for their cleaning should also be provided.


1.What is the proper sequence for the manual dish washing operations? ________, ________, ________, ________.

2.Bathrooms for patrons must be provided when there are 19 seats or more in the dining area. TRUE FALSE

3.Cutting boards must be sanitized at least three times a day: TRUE FALSE

4.Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from a faulty gas-fired hot water unit. TRUE FALSE

5.Equipment, including ice makers and ice storage equipment, should not be located under exposed or unprotected sewer lines, open stairwells or other sources of contamination. TRUE FALSE

6.Bathrooms for employees must always be provided: TRUE FALSE

7.Wiping cloths must be stored in a sanitizing solution with a strength of: _______PPM

8.Between each use, cutting boards must be: ________, ________, and ________.

9.Both employees and customers can use the same bathroom even if customers have to walk through food areas to gain access to it: TRUE FALSE

10.When manually washing dishes using hot water sanitizing method, which of the following statements are true:

A. The water must be at 170°F. B. An immersion basket is needed.

C. A burner or booster is needed to heat the water. D. A two-compartment sink is necessary.

11.During chemical sanitization, the chemical solution must be checked by ______ ______.


Foods must be obtained from approved sources that comply

with all laws relating to food and food labeling. The use of food pre- pared in any place that is not operated under the jurisdiction of an appro- priate regulatory agency and that does not have a current permit or licence to operate, if required, from that

agency, is prohibited.


The sale of shellfish (oysters, clams or mussels) from a pushcart or other vehicle in any street or public

place is prohibited.


The preparation and service of potentially hazardous foods, including pastries filled with cream or synthetic cream, custards and similar products, and salads or sandwiches containing meat, poultry, eggs, shellfish or fish, is prohibited unless approved by the Department of Health. Only foods which require limited preparation,

such as hamburgers and frankfurters,

may be served.


Vendors who intend to sell alco- holic beverages must obtain a license from the New York State Liquor Authority.


Vendors must maintain their establishments, and prepare and store foods in accordance with the New York City Health Code and the New York State Sanitary Code.


Vendors must meet all other requirements, conform to all other applicable laws, obtain their Permit or Certificate of Registration prior to the

event, and obtain a Food Protection Certificate, when required.


The Permit, Certificate of Registration, and the Food Protection Certificate must

be conspicuously posted at the Temporary Food Service Establishment whenever it is in operation.

Food protection:

Wash your hands before starting work and each time after contamina- tion including coughing, sneezing or handling unclean items. Prepackaged moist towelettes (containing alcohol as a base ingredient) may be used to cleanse hands in non-processing establishments.

Food Protection Certificate

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Handling of Eating Utensils






pork or any food containing pork to at least 155°F for 15 seconds

ground meats to 158°F for 15 seconds

other foods to at least 145°F

shell eggs or food containing shell eggs to at least 145°F

rare roast beef and/or rare beef steaks as per chart below

Reheat potentially hazardous hot foods to at least 165°F (73.9°C).

Stir with sanitized utensils.

Maintain all potentially hazardous foods at 140°F (60°C) or above.

Maintain all potentially hazardous cold foods at 41°F (5.°C) or below.

Sanitize all food contact surfaces and equipment. Chemical sanitiza- tion solution may be prepared by mixing one tablespoon of bleach with each gallon of cool, potable water. Do not add soap or detergent to the water, because they reduce the effec-

Wash your hands with soap and

water after using the toilet.


Never allow hands to come in contact with food that will not be cooked. Use clean sanitized utensils, deli paper, disposable gloves, etc.

Keep all foods covered or other- wise protected from outside conta- mination. Keep all food service equipment, utensils, and paper goods similarly protected from out- side contamination.

Use only single service dishes and utensils for service to patrons. Handle single service eating utensils in a manner that prevents contami- nation of surfaces that come into contact with foods.

Store all food, food service equip- ment, utensils, and paper goods off the ground at all times.

Do not prepare foods if you are ill or have cuts or infections on your hands.

Do not smoke, eat or drink while working. Wear clean outer garments and effective hair restraints.

Prepare foods as close to transporta- tion or service time as possible.


poultry to at least 165°F for 15 seconds




°F (°C)



130 (54)



132 (56)



134 (57)



136 (58)



139 (59)



140 (60)



142 (61)



144 (62)



145 (63)






tiveness of the solution. Rinse wiping cloths frequently in the sanitizing solution.

Structure and Equipment:

Ensure that the walls, base, floor and food contact surfaces are of san- itary construction, and made of non-corrosive, non-rusting metals. Surfaces must be waterproof, smooth, readily cleanable and resistant to dents and scratches.


Provide proper waste receptacles. All waste receptacles must be vermin- proof and provided with tight-fitting lids.


Enclose or guard cooking and serv- ing surfaces to provide protection against air-borne contamination.


Prevent accidental injury by con- tact with cooking devices. Shield cooking devices against possible

contact with patrons.




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Obtain appropriate permits for the use of propane gas. Properly secure propane tanks. Tanks must be in an upright (vertical) position and provided with a base plate anchor as security against accidental toppling. The connection from fuel tank to burner must be of either a rigid metal tube or an approved, flexible metal tube; connections at fuel tanks and burners must be free of leaks.

Water requirements:

There are no sink or hot and cold water requirements for non-process- ing establishments; however, make available acceptable means of keeping

hands clean (e.g., moist towelettes).


Provide an adequate supply of potable (drinkable) water for food preparation, cleaning and sanitizing equipment, and hand washing in processing establishments.

Place waste water in a leak-proof container labeled “waste water” with a tight-fitting lid. Dispose of waste water into a public system or a sewage disposal system constructed, maintained and operated according to the law.


The following signs, produced by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, can be obtained from the Department of Consumer Affairs, 42 Broadway, NY, NY.

Please visit for a complete checklist of all the required New York City signs.













1Lay the victim on his back.

2Face the victim and kneel astride his hips.

3With one hand on top of the other, place the heel of your bottom hand on the abdomen slightly above the navel and below the rib cage.

4Press into the victim’s abdomen with a QUICK UPWARD THRUST. Repeat as often as necessary to dislodge food.

5Should the victim vomit, quickly place him on his side and wipe out his mouth to prevent vomit

from being drawn into the throat.

6After food is dislodged, the victim should see a doctor.


The victim collapses

The victim cannot speak or breathe

The victim turns blue

Design & Illustration: Laura Berkowitz & Sandra Hepp



1Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around the victim’s waist.

2Place the thumb side of your fist against the

victim’s abdomen, slightly above the navel and below the rib cage.

3Grasp your fist with the other hand and press your

fist into the victim’s abdomen with a QUICK UPWARD THRUST. Repeat as often as necessary to dislodge food.

4If the victim is sitting, stand behind the victim’s chair and perform the maneuver in the same manner.

5After food is dislodged, the victim should see a doctor.



Heimlich Maneuver. Post conspicuously.

* Heimlich Maneuver T.M. pending

Alcohol and Pregnancy. Post conspicuously.

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The following signs can also be obtained from the Department of Consumer Affairs, 42 Broadway, NY, NY .

Please visit for a complete checklist of all the required New York City signs.

Sale of cigarettes, cigars,

chewing tobacco, powdered tobacco,

bidis, herbal cigarettes,

or other tobacco products, rolling

papers or pipes to persons

under 18 years of age is



City of New York




Commissioner, Department of Consumer Affairs

Commissioner, Department of Health & Mental Hygiene

If cigarettes are sold. Post conspicuously.

Resuscitation masks and latex gloves are available at:



Learn CPR. For information, contact the

American Red Cross



after using the toilet

before handling food

whenever they are soiled


No Smoking


To report violations of the law, call 311

For help quitting smoking, call 311

or visit



1."First Aid Choking" poster must only be displayed conspicuously in each designated eating area:


2.All food establishments must display an "Alcohol

and Pregnancy Warning" sign. TRUE FALSE

3.A "Wash Hands" sign must be displayed at all hand washing sinks. TRUE FALSE



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What is Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP)?

Reduced oxygen packaging (ROP) is a procedure that results in a reduced oxygen level in a sealed package. The air we breathe has approximately 21% oxygen and therefore any packaging option that results in less oxy- gen is classified as ROP.

Types of ROP

Types of processes considered as ROP include Cook Chill Packaging, Sous Vide and Vacuum Packaging.

Cook-chill is a process in which cooked food is hot filled into impermeable bags from which the oxygen is expelled and then sealed or crimped closed.

Sous Vide is French for "under vacuum". It is a method of cooking in which raw or partially cooked food is placed in a hermetically sealed, impermeable bag, and heated for an extended period of time at rel- atively low temperatures.

Vacuum Packaging is removing air from a package and hermetically sealing it.

What is Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP)?

Safety Concerns

The ROP does not allow the spoilage microorganisms to grow thereby extending the shelf life of the product. However, as a result of the reduction in oxygen, a suitable environment may exist for certain pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocyto- genes which thrive in the absence of oxygen. This can lead to serious food borne illnesses that can be fatal.

Safety Guidelines

In order to ensure the safety of ROP foods, multiple barriers against the growth of pathogenic microorgan- isms such as C. botulinum and L. monocytogenes are needed.

Some of the acceptable barriers include:

pH of 4.6 or below

Water activity (aw) below .85

Presence of high levels of non-pathogenic competing microorganisms (raw meats, poultry, fermented cheeses with live cultures, etc.)


Enforcement and regulation

Food establishments interested in obtaining approval for Reduced Oxygen Packaging must follow Department of Health’s regulations. These include instructions that regulate how the food is packaged, what equipment is used to package and cook it, what internal temperatures the food must reach, and how it must be rapidly chilled and stored.

A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan for each food item must be submitted and approved by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene before ROP for that food is permitted at a retail food establishment.

For further information on Reduced Oxygen Packaging and submission of HACCP plans, please contact the Bureau of Food Safety and Community Sanitation at

212-676-1600/01 or use the following link: /rii/rii-red-oxygen-packaging.pdf

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CPR Regulations

Taverns and restaurants that sell food for on-premise consump- tion are required to have resuscitation

equipment on the premises. Resuscitation equipment required includes:

1 adult exhaled resuscitation mask

1 pediatric exhaled air resusci- tation mask

2 pair of latex gloves

A sign notifying the customers where the equipment is located

These masks must be certified for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. A notice must be

posted to indicate to customers that the resuscitation equipment is avail- able, where it is available, and where they can learn CPR. This informa- tion can be provided on a sign or on the menu. The owners of the estab- lishment or the staff are under no obligation to use the equipment or give medical assistance to a victim.

To learn CPR and for more information, contact the American Red Cross.


Regulation Restricting the Sale

of Tobacco Products to Minors

Retail sellers of tobacco products are prohibited from selling tobacco products to persons under

18 years of age.

Sales may be made only to individ- uals who provide a driver’s license or other photographic identifica- tion issued by a government entity or school indicating that the person is at least 18 years of age.

No employee under the age of 18 is permitted to sell, dispense or handle tobacco products unless that employee is under the direct supervision of the retailer or another employee who is at least 18 years of age and is on the premises.

Sales of cigarettes or other tobac- co products that have been removed from packaging which bears the health warning is pro- hibited.

Retailers must post a sign in a conspicuous place with the fol- lowing statement:


The sign referred to above can be obtained from the Department of Consumer Affairs, 42 Broadway, If you wish to post your own sign, the law requires that the sign be printed on a white card in red letters at least one-half inch in height.


New York City

Smoke-Free Air Act of 2002

Local Law 47, the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act, was signed

into law on December 30, 2002. The Act makes virtually all work- places in the City of New York smoke-free, including many places where smoking had previously been permitted. All work sites are required to develop, distribute and post their smoke-free policy, in

accordance with the law, which became effective on March 30, 2003.

Why the law is needed

Tobacco use is the leading epidemic of our time, killing more than 440,000 people nation-wide each year. In 2002, approximately 1,000 New Yorkers died because of exposure to second-hand smoke.

What businesses are affected?

The law, which went into effect on March 30, 2003, made virtually all establishments and businesses with employees smoke-free. These include:

All office buildings, factories, and warehouses.

All private offices and previously designated “smoking lounges.”

All food service establishments, restaurants, and catering halls.

All bars, including bars in restaurants.

Membership associations.

All areas of theatres.

Banks, educational and health care facilities, and child day care centers.

Shopping malls and retail stores (where goods are sold or rented to the public).

Sports arenas, roller and ice-skating rinks, billiard parlors, bingo halls, bowling establishments, and other similar places.

Public transportation facilities, reception areas, and waiting rooms.



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To comply with the new law:

1.Update your workplace smoking policy to reflect the new law.

2.Talk with your customers and employees about the law and pre- pare them for the changes.

3.Discuss the new law with employ- ees including what they should do to comply with the law:

Request any person smoking to refrain from smoking inside the workplace.

Refer to the law and to workplace policy when dealing with refusals to not smoke in the work place.

Remind them that the business or building owner may be assessed fines for infractions.

Request staff to report problems directly to the management or owner of the business, or to the building’s management.

4.Post “no smoking” signs at all entrances as required including bathrooms, stairwells on each floor, bulletin boards, and other promi- nent places.


No Smoking


To report violations of the law, call 311

For help quitting smoking, call 311

or visit


5.Remove all ashtrays from the premises as required.

6.Contact the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene for additional information, to register a complaint, and for compliance sup- port at 3-1-1. In addition, the Department’s website at will be updated with the most current information.


The New York City Smoke-Free

Air Act has been modified by passage of a new State law, the New York State Clean Indoor Air Act of 2003, which became effective July 24, 2003. The law voids some of the exemp- tions in the New York City law passed in December 2002. The few rare exceptions to the smoke-free poli- cy that became effective July 24, 2003, are:

Tobacco bars that were in existence on December 31, 2001, that sells or rent tobacco products and devices, and that derive 10% or more of their income from these sales or rentals;

Non-profit membership associa- tions with no employees.

The above facilities must apply for an exemption and register with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

In any restaurant, smoking is limit- ed to 25% of seating in a single outdoor dining area. An outdoor dining area is defined as one with no roof, overhang, or other ceiling enclosure.

Residential and certain day treat- ment health care facilities may pro- vide smoking rooms for some patients.

Hotel rooms that specifically allow for smoking (not public areas such as lobbies, meeting rooms, bars and restaurants).

Retail tobacco stores devoted pri- marily to the sale of tobacco prod- ucts; sale of other items account for less than 50% of total annual gross sales.

Tobacco promotional events (with specific parameters).

Under the New York City Smoke- Free Air Act of 2002, previous excep- tions for owner operated bars and separate smoking rooms in bars are no longer permitted due to restric- tions in the State Clean Indoor Air Act.

Remember: This law does not apply to private homes. For a more detailed explanation of exceptions, registration, and regulation require- ments, visit the Department’s website at


Each violation will be subject to fines.

First violation: Civil penalties of not less than $200 and not more than $400.

Second violation (within 12 months

of the first violation): Civil penalties

of not less than $500 and not more than $1,000.

Third or subsequent violation

(within 12 months of the first viola-

tion): Civil penalties of not less than $1,000 and not more than $2,000.

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene may sus- pend or revoke the permit of an establishment that is found in viola- tion of the law on three separate occa- sions within a 12-month period.


The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s Bureau of Food Safety and Community Sanitation is responsible for enforce- ment of the law as part of its current inspection operations. Inspections may also be performed in response to complaints. Enforcement began on March 30, 2003, when the law went into effect. You can register com- plaints by calling 311.

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Service of food shall be considered

LOCAL LAW 67 incidental if the food generates less than 40% of total annual gross sales.

Cigarette license number Expiration date of license number License holder’s name

Tobacco Vending Machine


Distribution of tobacco products through vending machines is

prohibited in all food service estab- lishments except taverns. Also known as bars, a “tavern” is an establishment where alcoholic bev- erages are sold and served for on site consumption and in which the ser- vice of food, if served at all is inci- dental to the sale of such beverages.

Taverns that operate a cigarette vending machine must ensure that the vending machine:

Be placed at least 25 feet from any entrance to the premises and directly visible by the owner or his employee.

Have a sign affixed to it, which is visible to the public, which identifies the wholesale or retail dealer’s:

Place of business

Phone number

Have a third sign which states that the sale of cigarettes to minors is prohibited. The sign must be in red lettering on a white card. It must be displayed conspicuously. This sign is available free of charge at the Department of Consumer Affairs 42 Broadway, NYC.


The following sections, extracted from the New York City Health Code, are presented here because they related specifically to permit suspension, revocation and

the inspection process.

§3.1 5 Interfering with or obstructing Department

personnel; gifts, gratuities and bribes.

gifts, gratuities, benefits, favors or bribes, or any other thing of value to an employee of the Department in the course of the performance of duty by such employee.

Section 566 of the Charter provides for right of entry of officers of the Department. See also, section 3.01 and the annotations thereto, particu- larly Frank v. Maryland, 79 S. Ct.804 (1959), District of Columbia v. Little, 339 U.S. 1, 70 S. Ct. 468, 94 L. Ed. 599 (1950) and People v. Maddeus, 5 A.D. 2d 886, 172 N.Y.S. 2d 607 (2d Dept. 1958) affd without opinion 4 N.Y. 2d 1003, 177 N.Y.S. 2d 517 (1958). For a case interpreting S.C. §186, see People v. Strudled, 96 Misc. 650, 161 N.Y.S. 1105 (Gen. Sess. 1916).

§5.17 Suspension and revocation by Board or


(a)No person shall interfere with or obstruct

Department personnel in carrying out an inspection, survey or examination or in the performance of any other duty for the Department or Board.

(b)No person shall give or offer a gift, gratuity, bene- fit, favor or bribe, including but not limited to money, food, and drink, to an employee or agent of the Department engaged in carrying out an inspection, sur- vey or examination or in the performance of any other duty for the Department or Board.


This section is derived from S.C. §186. The section has been expanded to include interference with or obstruction of any Department personnel during the performance of any duty for the Department or Board.

The section heading was amended and subsection (b) was added on October 6, 1992 to specifically prohibit the giving or offering of

(b)The Board may suspend or revoke any permit for willful or continued violation of this Code or for such other reason as the Board determines is sufficient grounds for suspension or revocation.

(b)When, pursuant to this Code, a permit is issued by the Commissioner, he may suspend or revoke such permit for willful or continued violation of this Code or for such other reason as he determines is sufficient grounds for suspension or revocation.

(c)When, pursuant to this Code, a permit is issued by the Commissioner, he or she may suspend or revoke such permit for the giving or offering to an employee or agent of the Department engaged in carrying out an inspec- tion, survey or examination or in the performance of any other duty for the Department or Board, a gift, gratuity, benefit, favor or bribe, including but not limited to money, food, or drink.



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(d)(1) When a permit is issued by the Commissioner pursuant to this Code, he or she may suspend such per- mit for failing to answer or appear for a hearing, or respond to a finding or notice of violation or order issued by the Department and answerable to the Administrative Tribunal established by Article 7, or any other tribunal having jurisdiction to hear and adjudi- cate violations of this Code.

(2)A permit suspended pursuant to subdivision (1) hereof shall remain suspended unless and until the default is vacated or the penalty imposed if any is satis- fied. The action of the Commissioner suspending a per- mit pursuant to this subsection shall not be stayed upon the filing of an appeal in accordance with Section

5.21of this Code.

(e)All permits revoked pursuant to this section shall be surrendered forthwith to the Department.


This section is derived from S.C. §191(e). The first clause of that section, ~Notwithstanding any other provision of the Sanitary Code or any of the regulations thereunder” has been omitted as unnecessary.

Authority to delegate to the Commissioner the power to issue per- mits, by way of Code provision, is expressly contained in Charter §561 which provides in part: ~Whenever the board of health in the sanitary code authorizes the issuance, suspension or revocation of a permit by the commissioner, his action shall be subject of review by the board of health upon an appeal by the party aggrieved under such rules as it may provide. “Sections 5.17 through 5.21 constitute such rules. The same section of the Charter expressly authorizes the Board, “. . . in its discretion [to] grant, suspend or revoke permits for busi- nesses or other matters in respect to any subject regulated by the department.” Note that the Charter §558(c) empowers the Board to “. . . embrace in the sanitary code all matters and subjects to which the power and authority of the department extends, not limiting their application to the subject of health only.” On the power to regulate by way of license and the imposition of a license fee, see Smart v. City of Albany, 146 Misc. 60, 260 N.Y.S. 579 (Sup. Ct. 1932).

Subsection (c) was relettered to subsection (d) and new subsection

(c)was adopted on June 26, 1990 to authorize the Commissioner to suspend a permit when the person or entity holding the permit fails to respond for a hearing.

New subsection (c) was added and subsections (c) and (d) were relettered to subsections (d) and (e) on October 6,1992 to clearly establish as a ground for revocation or suspension of a permit the giving or offering of gifts, gratuities, benefits, favors or bribes, or any other thing of value to an employee of the Department in the course of the performance of duty by such.


1.Smoking may be permitted only at the bars. TRUE FALSE

2."No Smoking" signs must be posted at all smoke free areas. TRUE FALSE

3.Ashtrays are permitted on dining tables as long as "No Smoking" signs are conspicuously displayed. TRUE FALSE

4.Tobacco vending machines are prohibited in all food service establishments except taverns or bars. TRUE FALSE

5.Any food service establishment that allows on-site consumption of food must provide a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) kit in case of an emergency. TRUE FALSE

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Prepared by New York State Department of Health: A Self-Assessment Guide for Food Service Operators

Train employees to recognize security risks and report them to management.

Ensure each shift manager knows what to do if an incident occurs.

Why Should I be concerned

about Food Defense?

The retail food establishment is

the front line in protecting our food supply. Thousands of people stop every day to have a snack, a drink or a full meal at a restaurant. There are countless opportunities to tam- per with food.

What can I do about it?

Even a small incident can bank- rupt a food establishment. Take the time to perform this self-assessment of your operation. It can help you lower your risk of being a target and also can improve your work practices.

Why do a self-assessment?

A self-assessment will take less than an hour and will provide you with a valuable snapshot of your operation. Self-Assessment is a powerful man- agement tool. By examining your operation, you may find ways to improve not just security and safety, but general work practice.

How do I do a Self-Assessment?

There are three basic steps to self- assessment:

1)Document your operation. Write down what you do and how you do it. To find out what is really happen- ing, ask your employees to describe in detail how they do each task. Use the checklist at the end as a guide.

2)Compare your systems to rec- ommended practices or standards. This chapter provides information on food safety and security practices. Note areas where you can make changes.

3)Get help where you need it. Consult experts, including your local health department, vendors and your police department, for

advice on how to best address your specific safety and security issues.


Unrestricted access to your opera- tion makes it an easy target for food tampering or other terrorist activity.

Key Points

Restrict customers to public areas only.

Limit facility access to employees and contractors only.

Security Strategies

Property Security. This could

include any of the following:

Do a walk-through inspection of your facility and storage areas daily.

Provide outside lighting. Make it difficult for someone to approach your facility without being seen.

Request regular police patrols.

Provide fences or other barriers around your property.

Provide surveillance. An alarm system or video surveillance sys- tem is expensive. If there has been a problem with building security in the past, however, it may be a wise investment.

Building Security

Close and lock service doors, except during deliveries

Discourage loitering.

Restrict key access to trusted employees. Know who has keys at all times.


Your employees and their training are vital to food safety and security

Key Points

Do employee background checks and verify information given.

Security Strategies

New Employees Perform com- plete background checks on all potential employees. Verify refer- ences, phone numbers and informa- tion on immigration status and criminal record.

Actively supervise new employees to ensure that they learn and follow established procedures.

All Employees. Keeping experi- enced employees is an excellent security strategy. In addition to establishing mutual trust, your employees will perform at a higher level of skill.

Train all employees to recognize food safety and security threats, including food tampering. Train employees to report problems to a supervisor immediately.

Limit employee access to areas needed for their job functions.

Keep a roster of all employees expected on each shift and dis- courage off-duty employees from loitering.

Keep personal items out of the work and storage areas. Have a separate place to store personal belongings.


The products you buy and how you store and use them are critical in protecting your business.

Key Points

Know who delivers to your facility and what they deliver.

Have someone available to accept all deliveries.

Store food and non-food items separately and secure all products.



N E W Y O R K C I T Y D E P A R T M E N T O F H E A L T H & M E N T A L H Y G I E N E




fod P R O T E C T I O N T R A I N I N G M A N U A L

Security Strategies


Purchase food products from known vendors.

Ask for identification from unknown delivery people.

Schedule deliveries to arrive only when staff is present.

Inspect all items for damage upon delivery and check against your invoices.

Take temperatures of chilled foods before accepting. Don’t accept refrigerated deliveries over 41°F.

Do not allow food to sit in the receiving area. Store food as soon as possible in the designated location.


Store food and non-food items separately. Keep all items securely.

Lock all storage areas, including outside storage, when unattended.

Know the types of chemicals you have on hand and dispose of chemicals no longer used.

Secure chemical storage areas.


Food preparation practices can lower your risk of problems

Key Points

Examine ingredients before using them. Don’t use a food that has an unusual look or smell.

Develop a routine for all tasks. When food is prepared the same way every time, it is easier to know if something is not right.

Security Strategies

Food Preparation

Inspect cans and packages for damage prior to using.

Examine ingredients before use and don’t use a food that has an unusual look or smell.

Establish standardized procedures for food preparation and train employees in these procedures.

Routinely check that those proce- dures are followed.

Cook foods thoroughly to destroy food pathogens.

Use a calibrated probe thermometer to check temperature every time.

Strictly enforce “no bare hand” policies (use of gloves and tongs) with ready-to-eat foods.

Food Holding

Know safe temperatures for hot and cold holding and check tem- peratures often.

Hold hot food above 140°F.

Cold holding units, such as sand- wich prep units, should keep products below 41°F. Keep lids and doors closed.

Limit hot holding unit access to preparation and service staff.


Control of the service area prevents product tampering

Key Points

Place self-service stations, such as salad bars and buffets, in areas where staff can easily supervise them.

Beware of anyone lingering in the self-service area.

Security Strategies


Keep customers out of food preparation areas.

Do not discuss your security mea- sures with anyone.

Be aware of anyone lingering in self- service areas or anyone who seems overly interested in your operations.

Be alert for packages and bags left unattended.

Self-Service Areas