Food Protection Training Manual PDF Details

Food safety is a critical part of the food service industry. Employees who handle food need to be properly trained in how to keep that food safe. The Food Protection Training Manual provides all the information necessary for employees to be able to do their jobs safely and effectively. The manual covers topics such as preventing foodborne illness, safe food handling practices, and proper sanitation procedures. It's an essential guide for anyone working in the food service industry.

In the table, there's some information concerning the food protection training manual. This site provides specifics of the form's size, finalization duration, and the blanks you can be needed to fill.

Form NameFood Protection Training Manual
Form Length97 pages
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Avg. time to fill out24 min 15 sec
Other namesfood protection course study guide, nyc food protection course final exam questions, nyc food protection final exam answers pdf, nyc food handlers final exam answers

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Introduction 1

Introduction to Food Safety 2

Receiving Foods 4

Storage of Food 8

Hazards to Our Health 11

Food Allergies 12

Microbiology of Foods 13

Common Foodborne Illnesses 18

Personal Hygiene 22

Food Preparation 24

Cooking, Hot Holding,

Cooling & Reheating 25

Cleaning and Sanitizing 31

HACCP Food Protection System 35

Pest Control 38

Plumbing 48

Operating a Temporary Food

Service Establishment 51

Required Postings 53

Reduced Oxygen Packaging 55

Local Laws 56

NYC Health Code Extracts 58

Food Defense Strategies 60

Trans Fat 62

Workplace Safety and Health 66

Form 198E Food Establishment

Inspection Report 69

Quizzes 75

Numbers to Remember 79

Work Sheets 83





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If you have questions or com- ments regarding this manual,

please call the Health Academy at

(917)492-6990. Other telephone numbers and addresses are listed below.

If you wish to contact:

OATH – HEALTH TRIBUNAL 66 John Street, 11th Floor

NY, NY 10038

(212) 361-1000



125 Worth Street, 9th & 10th Floors Box CN-59A, NY, NY 10013 Food Safety:

(212) 676-1600 Community Sanitation:

(212) 676-1651



42Broadway NY, NY 10004

(212) 487-4436

HEALTH ACADEMY 413 East 120 Street 2nd Floor

NY, NY 10035

(917) 492-6990


80 Maiden Lane NY, NY 10005

(212) 825-2141



(212) 788-4290


Published by the

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Division of Environmental Health

125 Worth Street

New York, NY 10013


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The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has the jurisdiction to regulate all matters affecting health in the city and to perform all those

functions and operations that relate to the health of the people of the city.

this certification may be needed at an establishment to have coverage dur- ing all shifts, vacations or illnesses.

The Food Protection Manual has been designed to assist participants of the course to better understand the principles of safe food handling. It serves as a reference for food ser- vice operators and it includes the necessary information to pass the final examination.

On-Line Food Protection Course

The Health Code

These are regulations that were formulated to allow the Department to effectively protect the health of the population. Among the rules embodied in the Health Code is Article 81 which regulates the oper- ations of food establishments for the purpose of preventing public health hazards.

Environmental Health Division

The Division of Environmental Health is the Commission within the Health Department that is concerned with public health and works to eliminate the incidence of injury and illness caused by environmental factors.

There are several Offices and Bureaus within this division. One of these is the Bureau of Food Safety and Community Sanitation that has the responsibility for con- ducting inspections of food service and food processing establishments. These inspections are performed by Public Health Sanitarians.

Anti-corruption Warning

All Sanitarians have Department of Health and Mental Hygiene badges and identification cards which they must display whenever it is requested of them.

It is illegal to offer a Sanitarian any bribe, gratuity or reward for official misconduct; this is a crime

that can result in fines, and /or imprisonment, and the revocation of permits. Also, Sanitarians are not authorized to conduct any monetary transactions on behalf of the Department.

Inspector General

This is an office that exists within the Health Department with the responsibility of investigating any incidence of alleged corrupt activity. Investigations may be conducted as a result of complaints by employees of the Department or members of the public.

Health Academy

The Health Academy is an office within the Division of Environmental Health. One of its responsibilities is to provide training and certification courses for individuals from the public as mandated by the Health Code.

The Food Protection Course is one of the courses taught here. The Food Protection Course is required by the Health Code for supervisors of food service establishments and non-retail food processing establishments. These individuals must take the course and pass an examination before a certifi- cate is issued to them. A person holding such a certificate must be on the premises and supervise all food preparation activities during all hours of operation. Several supervisors with

The Food Protection Course in English, Spanish and Chinese is now also available on-line. This course is designed for individuals with busy schedules to study at their con- venience. After the completion of the course, a final examination is scheduled at the Health Academy. Registration is done on-line. The link is:

Register for Health Academy Classes On-Line

You may now register and pay online for courses offered at the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene’s Health Academy, includ- ing the Food Protection Course for restaurants. This new service allows you to avoid going to the Citywide Licensing Center to register for a course. You may also use the on-line service to pay for and request an appointment to replace your Food Protection Certificate.

How does it work?

Go to the registration web page,, select a course and date, pay the appropriate fee and receive confirmation.

You will be asked to provide some personal information before regis- tering. In most cases, you will be able to select from a list of course dates. If you don’t see a date that is convenient, check back as new course dates are added frequently.

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1.All food service establishments must have a current and valid permit issued by the NYC Health Department.


2.Health Inspectors have the right to inspect a food service or food processing establishment as long as it is in operation. Inspectors must be given access to all areas of establishment during an inspection. TRUE FALSE

3.Health Inspectors are authorized to collect permit fees and fines on behalf of the Department. TRUE FALSE

4.Health Inspectors must show their photo identification and badge to the person in charge of an establishment.


5.According to the NYC Health Code, who is required to have a Food Protection Certificate? ________________________________.


What are Potentially Hazardous

Foods (PHF)?

The United States has one of the safest food safety systems in the world, yet millions of Americans still get sick each year from eating contami- nated foods; hundreds of thousands are hospitalized; and several thou- sand die. This means that there is still tremendous room for improve- ment in food safety standards.

Most food-borne illnesses are caused by improper handling of food. The statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) show that some of the most common causes of foodborne illness are:

Sick food worker

Poor personal Hygiene/Bare hand contact

Improper holding temperatures

Improper cooling

Inadequate cooking and reheating

Cross contamination

Use of food from unknown source

What is Food-Borne Illness?

Any illness that is caused by food is called food-borne illness. A food- borne illness outbreak is defined as any incident involving two or more persons becoming ill with similar symptoms from the same source. Typically these illnesses are a direct result of contamination of food by harmful microorganisms, (commonly called germs) such as bacteria,



This expression refers to those foods



that provide suitable conditions for

viruses, parasites, fungi etc. Injury

rapid growth of microorganisms.

and illness caused by foreign objects,

These include foods that are high in

dangerous chemicals and/or allergens

protein like raw or cooked animal

in food is also considered a food-

products such as meats, poultry,

borne illness.

fish, shellfish (mollusks as well as

Who is at Risk?

crustaceans), milk and milk products

(cheese, butter milk, heavy cream etc.,),

We are all at risk of getting a food

plant protein such as tofu, and

borne illness; however, the effects are

starches such as cooked rice, cooked

more severe for certain categories of

pasta, cooked beans and cooked


vegetables like potatoes, cut melons,

Children whose immune system

cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes or

(human body’s defense system

mixtures of cut tomatoes, as well as

against diseases) is not fully devel-

oped yet.

raw seed sprouts and garlic in oil.

Elderly individuals because their

Exceptions: Those foods that have a

immune system is not robust any-

low water activity (.85 or less) or those

more and has weakened due to old

that are highly acidic with a pH of


4.6 or below. Air-cooled hard-boiled

Pregnant women where the threat

eggs with shells intact.

is both to the mother and the fetus.


Individuals with com-


promised immune sys-




Potentially Hazardous Foods

tems e.g., Patients with


AIDS, cancer or indi-



viduals who are diabet-



ics, etc.



People on medication



(antibiotics, immunosup-



pressant, etc.).



What is food?



Food is any edible sub-



stance, ice, beverage, or



ingredient intended for use



and used or sold for



human consumption.







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What is Ready-To- Eat Food?

necessary permits to operate. The use of





















Any food product that does not

foods prepared at home or in an unli-


















need additional heat treatment or

censed establishment is prohibited.























washing is called ready-to-eat food.














Extra care must be taken to ensure

The Temperature Danger Zone?









the safety of these foods.


Most microorganisms that cause
























Where do we purchase foods?

foodborne illness typically grow best




















between temperatures of 41°F and






All foods must be purchased from











140°F. This is commonly referred to











approved sources. These are manu-











as the temperature danger zone. One










facturers and suppliers who comply
























with all the rules and regulations that

of the basic and simplest ways to keep









food safe is by keeping it out of the









pertain to the production of their








temperature danger zone.









product, including having the

























































How do we store potentially

































hazardous foods?

















All foods must be kept free from

















adulteration, spoilage, filth or

















other contamination in order to be

















suitable for human consumption.

















Potentially hazardous foods are of




























Cold temperature

particular concern because they























reading calibration

provide the conditions suitable for



























the growth of microorganisms.
















These foods must be kept either hot or

Also, it is available within the range

in 50/50 solution of ice and water

cold to prevent microorganisms from

of 0° to 220°F making it ideal for

or boiling water, and hitting the

growing. Hot means 140°F or above

measuring the required tempera-

“reset” button will automatically

and cold means 41°F or below. The

tures in a food establishment.

calibrate the thermometer. Bi-metallic

temperature range between 41°F and


Another thermometer in use is

stem thermometers may be calibrated

140°F is known as the temperature

the thermocouple which is very accu-

by two methods:

danger zone. It is within this range

rate but fairly expensive. Lastly, there is

Boiling-Point Method

that microorganisms are comfortable

a thermometer called thermistor,

Ice-Point method

and will grow rapidly. At 41°F and

which has a digital read out and is











below, the temperature is cold

commonly called "digital thermometer."

Boiling-Point Method

enough to retard or slow down the


These thermometers are used by

Bring water to a boil.

growth of microorganisms, while

inserting the probe into the thickest

Place the thermometer probe (stem)

above 140°F most of the microor-

part or the geometric center of the

into the boiling water. Make sure

ganisms which cause foodborne ill-

food item being measured. The stem

that the thermometer probe does

ness begin to die.

thermometer must remain in the food

not touch the bottom or sides of



until the indicator stops moving before

the pan. Wait until the indicator


stops moving, then record the

the reading is taken and must be re-



The only safe way to determine


calibrated periodically to assure accuracy.

that potentially hazardous foods are

If the temperature is 212°F, do






kept out of the temperature danger









nothing, the thermometer is accurate.








zone is by the use of thermometers.


Thermometers must be calibrated

(This is the temperature of boiling

There are several different types of

to ensure their accuracy. For thermo-

water at sea level.)

thermometers. The bi-metallic stem is

couple thermometers, follow the

If the temperature is not 212°F,

the most popular type. It is fairly

instructions provided by the manu-

rotate the hex-adjusting nut using

inexpensive, easy to use, accurate to

facturer. For some thermistor ther-

a wrench or other tool until the

+ or – 2°F and easy to re-calibrate.

mometers, placing the thermometer

indicator is at 212°F.

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Ice-Point Method

Fill a container with ice and water to

make a 50/50 ice water slush.

Stir the slush.


Place the thermometer probe so

that it is completely submerged in

the ice-water slush, taking care

not to touch the sides or the bot-

tom. Wait until the indicator nee-

dle stops moving, then record the


If the temperature is 32°F, do

nothing, the thermometer is

accurate. (A 50/50 ice water slush

will always have a temperature of

32°F at sea-level.) If the tempear-

ture is not 32°F, rotate the hex-

adjusting nut until the indicator

needle is at 32°F.

How to use a Thermometer

The following describes the proper method of using thermometers:

Sanitize the probe by the use of

alcohol wipes. This is a fairly safe

and common practice. Other

methods such as immersion in

water with a temperature of 170°F

for 30 seconds or in a chemical

sanitizing solution of 50 PPM for

at least one minute, or swabbing

with a chlorine sanitizing solution

of 100 PPM are also acceptable.

Measure the internal product

temperature by inserting the probe

into the thickest part or the center

of the product. It is recommend-

ed that the temperature readings

be taken at several points.

Whenever using a bi-metallic

thermometer, ensure that the

entire sensing portion – from the

tip of the probe to the indenta-

tion on the stem, is inserted in to

the food product.

The first opportunity one has to ensure that food is safe is at the point of receiving. At this point care

must be taken to ensure that all products come from approved sources and/or reliable and rep- utable suppliers. Incoming supplies must be received at a time when it is convenient to inspect them and place them into storage promptly. There are various qualities and con- ditions one should look for in dif- ferent food items.


Incoming supplies of beef can be received either fresh or frozen. Fresh beef should be at 41°F or below while frozen beef should be at 0°F or below. Beef should be bright to dark red in color with no objection- able odor. To ensure that the supply is from an approved source, look for the United States Department of Agriculture inspection stamp. This can be found on the sides of the beef carcass or on the box when receiving portions of the carcass. This inspection is mandatory and the stamp indicates that the meat is sanitary, wholesome and fit for human consumption. Also found may be a grade stamp which attests to the quality of the meat and will certainly have an impact on its price. The inspection stamp is the more important of the two stamps.


Lamb, like beef, may have an inspection stamp as well as a grade stamp. When fresh, it is light red in color and has no objectionable odor and the flesh is firm and elastic. Fresh lamb is received at 41°F and frozen at or below 0°F. (See stamps below)


Pork is also subject to USDA inspection. The flesh is light colored while the fat is white. A good way to check for spoilage is to insert a knife into the flesh all the way to the bone and check the blade for any off odors. (See stamps below)

Chicken and Poultry

Chicken and poultry are subject to USDA inspection which must be verified by the inspection stamp. (See stamps below) These must be received either fresh at 41°F and below or frozen at 0°F or less, as they are naturally contaminated with the micro-organism Salmonella which must be kept under control.

Wait for roughly 15 seconds or

until the reading is steady before

recording it.

Clean and sanitize the thermometer

for later use.


USDA Poultry

Inspection Stamp

Inspection Stamp


USDA Poultry


Grade Stamp

Grade Stamp





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Fresh fish

There is no inspection for fresh fish other than what can be done by sight and touch and one’s sense of smell. This makes it more impor- tant to purchase supplies from rep- utable and reliable suppliers. Fresh fish must be received cold and on ice, 41°F or less, with no objection- able odor. The eyes must be clear and bulging, the gills bright red and the flesh firm and elastic. Fish that is spoiling will have a fishy odor; the eyes cloudy, red rimmed and sunken; the gills grey or greenish; the flesh will pit on pressure and can easily be pulled away from the bones; the scales are loose.

Smoked fish

Smoked fish provide ideal condi- tions for the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores if left at room temperature. Therefore, upon receipt, all smoked fish must be stored at 38°F or below.

It is important to adhere to the temperature requirements stated on the label.


Shellfish is the term used to describe clams, mussels, and oysters. These belong to the family of mol- lusks. They are filter feeders, that is, they absorb water from their envi- ronment, filter out whatever nutri- ents are there and then expel the water. Feeding in this manner causes them to absorb and accumulate harmful microorganisms from pollut- ed waters. Since the whole shellfish is eaten either raw or partially cooked, it is critical to ensure that they are harvested from safe waters. It is important to buy shellfish from reputable suppliers who can provide the shipper’s tags which identify the source of the shellfish. These tags supply the following information:

The name of the product

The name of the original shipper

The address of the original shipper

The interstate certificate number of the original shipper

The location of the shellfish har- vesting area.

When purchasing small amounts from a retailer, a tag must be pro- vided. This is a split-lot tag which

has all the information that is on the original tag.

The shellfish tag is required to be kept together with the product, then whenever the product is used up, it must be kept for 90 days in order of delivery. The virus Hepatitis A is associated with shellfish.

Check if the shellfish is alive. An opened shell may be an indication of dead shellfish. Gently tap on the shell, if the shell closes then it is alive otherwise it’s dead and should be discarded. Both alive as well as shucked shellfish (shellfish that has been removed from its shell) must only be accepted if delivered at a temperature of 41°F or below. Following conditions would auto- matically be grounds for rejection:

Slimy, sticky or dry texture

Strong fishy odor

Broken shells

Other Shellfish

Lobsters, crabs and shrimps belong to the family of crustaceans. Fresh lobsters and crabs must be alive at the time of delivery. As with other seafood, a strong fishy odor is an indication of spoilage. The shell of the shrimp must be intact and firm- ly attached. All processed crustacean must be delivered at 41°F or below.

Split Lot Tag

Shellfish Tag


It is strongly recommended that the invoices be kept with the tags to aid in tracing the lot’s history.


Eggs produced outside of New York State are inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture while those produced within the State are inspected by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. In either case, inspected eggs will be identified by a stamp on the carton. Eggs have long been

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associated with the micro-organism Salmonella enteritidis. This bacteri- um has been found on the inside of the egg, so external washing does not make eggs safe.

Eggs should be bought from sup- pliers who deliver them in refriger- ated trucks and upon receipt, these eggs must be kept refrigerated at an ambient temperature of 45°F until they are used.

pasteurized milk and milk products must not exceed 45 days from date of ultra pasteurization.

Upon receipt, these products must be checked to ensure that they are well within the expiration period and that they are at 41°F or below. This temperature must be main- tained until the product is used up.

watermelons, cantaloupes, honey dews and all varieties of melons, oranges, etc. Only potable running water should be used to thoroughly wash these produce, and the use of produce scrubbing brushes is strongly recommended.

Egg Cartons Stamps

Pasteurized Eggs

Pasteurization is a method of heating foods to destroy harmful microorganisms. Pasteurized eggs come in many forms: intact shell eggs, liquid eggs, frozen eggs, or in pow- dered form. Even though these have been pasteurized, they still require refrigeration to slow down growth of spoilage microorganisms to extend the shelf life. Only the powdered pasteurized eggs may be held at room temperature.

Milk and Milk Products

Only accept Grade A pasteurized milk and milk products. Harmful pathogens such as Listeria monocy- togenes, E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. are commonly asso- ciated with un-pasteurized milk.

The expiration date on pasteur- ized milk and milk products must not exceed nine calendar days from date of pasteurization, while ultra




Canned Goods





It is a simple task to inspect




canned goods and remove from cir-




culation those cans that can cause

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables


foodborne illness. The first step is





The acceptable condition of fruits

to ensure that home canned foods

are not used in a food service estab-

and vegetables vary from one item



lishment. All canned foods must be

to another. As a general rule of thumb,

commercially processed. A good can

only accept those that do not show

is free from rust and dents, properly

any signs of spoilage. Reject any



sealed and labeled and slightly con-

produce that shows signs of decay,



cave at both ends.


mold, mushiness, discoloration,







wilting, and bad odors.


A can with a dent on any of the

A recent study done by the center



three seams (top, bottom or side)

for Science in the Public Interest



must be removed from circulation.

(CSPI) found that contaminated fruits

The same requirement is true for

and vegetables are causing more food-

severely rusted, severely dented, leak-

borne illness among Americans than

ing and cans with swollen ends. Bad

raw chicken and eggs combined.



cans may be rejected at delivery or seg-

Most fresh produce may become



regated and clearly labeled for return

contaminated with Salmonella and



to the supplier.


E.coli 0157:H7 due to the







use of manure fertilizer











(more common in South






and Central America, which






is a major source of fresh






produce to the United












Fresh produce must be






thoroughly washed prior to






being served raw. This






includes all kinds of fruits






and vegetables including



severe dents

slight rust

produce that has a hard





rind that is typically not











consumed, for example,







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Modified Atmosphere

Packaged Foods

Various food items are packaged under special conditions to prolong their shelf life. These conditions include the following:

Food is placed in a package and all the air is withdrawn: vacuum packaging.

Food is placed in a package, all the air is withdrawn and gases are added to preserve the contents – modified atmosphere packaging.

Food is placed in a package, all the air is withdrawn and the food

is cooked in the package: sous vide packaging.

Because of the absence of air, foods packaged in this manner provide ideal conditions for the growth of the clostridium botulinum micro-organism, unless they are refrigerated at tem- peratures recommended by the manufacturer.

These products must be provided by approved sources and care taken to preserve the packaging during handling and when taking the tem- perature.

Food establishments interested in making “modified atmosphere pack- aged foods” must first obtain per- mission from NYC DOHMH.

For more information , please see Page 54.

Dry Foods

Dry foods such as grains, peas,

beans, flour and sugar are to be dry at the time of receiving. Moisture will cause growth of molds and the deterioration of these products. Broken and defective packages will indicate contamination; as will the evidence of rodent teeth marks.

Whenever these products are removed from their original con- tainers, they must be stored in tightly covered, rodent-proof containers with proper labels.

Refrigerated and Frozen

Processed Foods

For convenience as well as cutting down on costs, there has been a greater shift towards using prepared pre- packaged refrigerated or frozen foods. These routinely include deli and luncheon meats, refrigerated or frozen entrees, etc. Care should be taken when receiving these products to ensure quality as well as safety. Following are some guidelines:

Ensure that refrigerated foods are delivered at 41°F or below. (Except, as noted previously, smoked fish must be received at 38° F or lower.)

Ensure that frozen foods are delivered at 0°F or lower.

All packaging must be intact.

Any frozen food packaging that shows signs of thawing and refreezing should be rejected. Signs include liquid or frozen liquids on the outside packaging, formation of ice crystals on the packaging or on the product, and water stains.


1.The term "potentially hazardous food" refers to foods which do not support rapid growth of microorganisms. TRUE FALSE

2.Home canned food products are allowed in commercial food establishments. TRUE FALSE

3.The Temperature Danger Zone is between 41°F and 140°F.


4.Within the Temperature Danger Zone, most harmful microorganisms reproduce rapidly. TRUE FALSE

5.Shellfish tags must be filed in order of delivery date and kept for a period of _______ days.

6.Fresh shell eggs must be refrigerated at an ambient temperature of: ______°F.

7.Foods in Modified Atmosphere Packages provide ideal conditions for the growth of: _______

8.The recommended range of bi-metallic stem thermometer is: _______

9.Meat inspected by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture must have a/an:

____________ stamp.

10.Chicken and other poultry are most likely to be contaminated with: _______

11.Smoked fish provide ideal conditions for the growth of Botulinum spores. Therefore, this product must be stored at: ______°F

12.Safe temperatures for holding potentially hazardous foods are: ______°F or below and ______°F or above

13.What are the four types of defective canned products that must be removed from circulation? ______, ______, _____, _____

14.Which of the following is an indication that fish is not fresh?:

clear eyes fishy odor firm flesh

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fter receiving the foods proper

Storage Containers

Aly, they must be immediately

It is always best to store food in

their original packaging; however,

moved to appropriate storage areas.

The most common types of food

when it is removed to another con-

storage include:

tainer, take extra care to avoid cont-

Refrigeration storage

amination. Only use food containers

that are clean, non-absorbent and

Freezer storage

are made from food-grade material

Dry storage

intended for such use. Containers

Storage in Ice

made from metal may react with


We will discuss each of these

certain type of high acid foods such

individually; however, certain

as sauerkraut, citrus juices, tomato

aspects are common for all types of

sauce, etc. Plastic food-grade con-

storage and are described below.

tainers are the best choice for these


types of foods. Containers made of

copper, brass, tin and galvanized metal

An important aspect of food stor-

should not be used. The use of such

age is to be able to use food products

products is prohibited.

before their “use-by” or expiration



date. In this regard, stock rotation is

Re-using cardboard containers to

very important. The common sense

store cooked foods is also a source

approach of First in First out (FIFO)

of contamination. Lining containers

method of stock rotation prevents

with newspapers, menus or other

waste of food products and ensures

publication before placing foods is

quality. The first step in implement-

also prohibited as chemical dyes from

ing the FIFO method of stock rota-

these can easily leach into foods.

tion is to date products. Marking the

Storage Areas

products with a date allows food

Foods should only be stored in

workers to know which product was

designated areas. Storing foods in

received first. This way, the older stock

passageways, rest rooms, garbage

is moved to the front, and the newly

areas, utility rooms, etc. would sub-

received stock is placed in the back.

ject these to contamination. Raw




foods must always be stored

Cross Contamination


below and away from cooked

When harmful microorganisms are


foods to avoid cross contami-

transferred from one food item to



another, typically, from raw foods to


Refrigerated Storage

cooked or ready to eat foods, it is



This type of storage is typi-

termed cross contamination. This



cally used for holding potential-

expression also applies in any situa-


tion where contamination from one


ly hazardous foods as well as

object crosses over to another. Cross


perishable foods for short peri-

contamination may also occur between


ods of time—a few hours to a

two raw products, for instance,


few days.

poultry juices falling on raw beef


An adequate number of effi-

will contaminate it with Salmonella,



cient refrigerated units are

which is typically only associated



required to store potentially

with poultry and raw eggs.







hazardous cold foods. By keeping cold foods cold, the microorganisms that are found naturally on these foods are kept to a minimum. Cold

temperature does not kill microor- ganisms, however, it slows down their growth.

Pre-packaged cold foods must be stored at temperatures recommended by the manufacturer. This is especially important when dealing with vacuum packed foods, modified atmosphere packages and sous vide foods. Smoked fish is required by the Health Code to be stored at 38°F or below.

Fresh meat, poultry and other potentially hazardous foods must be stored at 41°F or below, while frozen foods must be stored at 0°F or below. For foods to be maintained at these temperatures, refrigerators and freezers must be operating at tem- peratures lower than 41°F and 0°F., respectively. Thermometers placed in the warmest part of a refrigerated unit are necessary to monitor the temperature of each unit.

The rule of storage, First In First Out (FIFO) ensures that older deliveries are used up before newer ones. In practicing FIFO, the very first step would be to date all prod- ucts as they are received. The next step is to store the newer products behind the older ones.

The following rules are important in making sure that foods are safe during refrigerated storage:

Store cooked foods above raw foods to avoid cross-contamina- tion.

Keep cooked food items covered unless they are in the process of cooling, in which case they must be covered after being cooled to 41°F.

Avoid placing large pots of hot foods in a refrigerator. This will cause the temperature of the refrigerator to rise and other foods will be out of temperature.



N E W Y O R K C I T Y D E P A R T M E N T O F H E A L T H & M E N T A L H Y G I E N E




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